Contents  
Chapter- 1: General
Chapter- 2: History
Chapter- 3: People
Chapter- 4: Agriculture & Irrigation
Chapter- 5: Industries
Chapter - 6: Banking, Trade & Commerce
Chapter - 7: Communications
Chapter - 8: Miscellenous Occupation
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 1
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 2
Chapter - 10: General Administration
Chapter - 11: Revenue Aministration
Chapter - 12 : Law & Order and Justice
Chapter - 13 : Other Departments
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part1
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part2
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part3
Chapter - 15 : Education and Culture
Chapter - 16 : Medical & Public Health Services
Chapter - 17 : Other Social Services

 

Chapter - 18 :  Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organisations
Chapter - 19 : Places of Interest
Chapter - 20 : Glossary

CHAPTER - XIV
LOCAL SELF - GOVERNMENT.
Part 3

ACTIVITIES OF THE DISTRICT COUNCIL.

1. LEGISLATIVE :

The District Council of North Cachar Hills has enacted a number of Acts, Rules , and Regulations since its inception in accordance with the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India. A list of the important Acts, Rules and Regulation has been given in Chapter X.

Procedure of making or amending laws, regulations and rules in respect of matters falling with in the purview of the District Council as specified in the Sixth Schedule to the the Constitution of India are the same as described earlier.

Education : Since its inception, the Council has set up 14 L.P. Schools out of its own resources and expenditure on these schools in 1964-65 was Rs. 65,000/-. Besides these L.P. Schools , the Council has assisted in setting up and managing Middle and High Schools and one Arts College at Haflong . The Council took over management of 220 Govt. L.P. Schools on 1.4.64. The total expenditure on these schools in 1964-65 was Rs.2,85,000/- which was received as grants-in-aid from the State Govt.

It is the policy of Council to impart education in the primary stage in child's own mother tongue but great difficulties have been experienced in this respect for want of text books and teachers in the tribal languages. At present the medium of instructions in these schools is either Bengali, English, Assamese or Hindi.

Development works : Ever since the District Council came into being , it engaged itself in development activities within the limits of its financial resources. Apart from the activities in the field of education, the Council has engaged itself in development activities, such as improvement of rural communication, rural water supply , markets and minor irrigation etc., An indication of the Council activities will be available from the following figures which relate to the period from 1958-59 to 1964- 65. During this period , the Council has constructed 205 water tanks and wells, 916 miles of foot paths, 50 miles of jeepable roads, 42 small irrigation schemes and 9 play grounds in rural areas. Besides, the Council has improved five markets under its control by providing better stalls, better drainage and conservancy and better water supply . The Council has also helped the Haflong Town Committee in providing better civic amenities in the Town.

Administration of Justice : Soon after its inception the District Council passed a set of rules called North Cachar Hills District (Administration Of Justice) Rules, 1953 , providing for setting up of three classes of courts namely, the Village Court, District Council Court and Subordinate District Council Court. The District Council Court and one Subordinate District Council Court are already functioning at Haflong with single Judicial Officer in each court. No village court has yet been set up and the chief village authorities such as Mauzadar and Gaonburas are authorised to function as Village Courts.

Village Court : These Courts are empowered to try cases of petty nature such as simple affray and petty theft etc., and are empowered to impose fine up to Rs.50/-. Appeals from these courts lie to the Subordinate District Council Court.

Subordinate District Council Court : The court consists of a single Judicial Officer who has been given the powers of a Magistrate First Class under the Criminal Procedure Code. The court hears appeals from the Village Courts and has original jurisdiction over all cases and suits triable by the District Council Courts under the Administration of Justice Rules.

District Council Court : The Court consists of a single Judicial Officer though according to Rules , the court may consist of a single or a bench of more than one Judicial Officer. This is an appellate court. Appeals from this court lie to the High Court.

Receipt and Expenditure of the District Council of North Cachar Hills : Chapter 8 of the Assam Autonomous District (Constitution of District Council ) Rules 1951, provides for the procedure to be followed in preparation of Annual Financial Statement of the Council ; its preparation to and discussion in the Council and voting of demands for grants. Each year in March, the Budget is presented to and discussed in the Council. At the end of each session , a schedule specifying the grants made by the Council is placed in the Council and expenditure are incurred accordingly. The North Cachar Hills District Fund Rules provides for receipt, custody and withdrawal of Council money and in accordance with the provision of these rules, the funds of the Council are kept in the treasury under a personal ledger account in the name of the Council. All the financial powers are vested with the Executive Committee . The Executive Members in-charge of the Finance Portfolio has the power to sanction expenditure up to the limit of rupees one thousand. The Secretary of the District Council who is the drawing and disbursing officer of the District Council draws money by means of cheque from the District Council Fund held in Haflong Treasury. The accounts of the Council are subject to Audit by the Accountant General, Assam and Nagaland, Shillong.

The District Council 's Fund comprises receipts of revenue from Council's own resources and grants-in-aid etc., received from Govt. year to year. The funds relating to Govt. grants are utilized against the specified schemes approved by Govt. and funds accumulated from revenue receipt of the Council, is utilized on normal administrative staff including the payment of salary, T.A. etc., of the Members and the surplus from this is utilized in developmental works including maintenance etc., of the existing works. The total receipts of the District Council of North Cachar Hills during 1964-65 was Rs.11,37,967/- of which Rs.5,63,896/- was from the Council's own resources and Rs.5,74,071/- was grants from the Govt. The total expenditure incurred during the same year was Rs.11,61,550/- of which an amount of Rs.3,22,491/- was incurred on establishment and administration and the rest of the amount of Rs.8,39,059/- was on development works.

RECEIPTS : As stated in the preceding paragraphs, the receipts of the Council may be categorised in the two heads viz., (A) revenue from Council's own resources and (B) grants -in-aid from the Govt. The receipts from the sources are gradually on increase.

The revenue receipt of the District Council from its own resources was Rs.2,22,705/- in 1959- 60 and rose to Rs.5,63,896/- in 1964-65. The receipts of the Council's own resources comprises revenue from land revenue and house tax; taxes on professions, trade and callings ; taxes on vehicles and boats ; taxes on entry of goods into the markets and sales therein ; royalty on timber and fees and tolls levied on licences for trading by non-tribals and on fisheries and cattle. The Council is also entitled to 60% of the net royalty from elephant hunting, minerals and minor minerals. Taxes on motor vehicles both under the Act of 1936 and 1939 are collected by the State Government and remits the amount to the Council Fund after deducting the cost of the services rendered . Following are the receipts since 1959-60 to 1964 to 1965 :-

Year

District Council's

own resources.

Grants

Total receipts

Loans and Advances

1

2

3

4

5

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

2,22,705

2,73,587

3,14,321

3,96,310

4,68,088

5,63,896

1,15,374

1,16,056

92,807

1,05,294

2,19,390

5,74,071

3,38,079

3,89,643

4,07,128

5,01,604

6,77,478

11,37,967

1,47,000

3,00,000

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Land Revenue : Unlike the District Council of Karbi the revenue receipts of the District Council of North Cachar Hills from land revenue , is very small, amounting to Rs.21,554/- in 1959-60 and the same rose to Rs.31,464/- in 1964-65. The receipts under the land revenue , comprises receipts from ordinary revenue, rent etc., on fisheries, house tax and land registration and mutation fees etc.

Most of the areas in the North Cachar Hills are non- cadastral. Only the plain portions in the Jatinga , Mahur and Langting Valley has been cadastrally surveyed and brought under revenue assessment. The area under settlement and assessed to land revenue was only 5,269.52 acres in 1964- 65. In non-cadastral areas house-tax at the rate of Rs.3/- per annum in villages having is levied. The table below shows the land revenue receipts under different sub-heads since 1959-60 to 1964-65 of the North Cachar Hills District Council :-

Sub-head

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

Ordinary

revenue

Rent etc.,

on fisheries.

House tax.

Land regis-

tration, muta-

tion fees.

4,158

 

 

3,496

13,900

-

 

 

5,942

 

 

3,635

13,156

525

 

6,781

 

 

3,453

15,402

-

 

7,284

 

 

4,090

18,763

-

9,430

 

 

5,197

19,307

-

8,481

 

 

4,340

18,643

-

 

Total

21,554

23,258

25,636

30,137

33,934

31,464

Forests : The revenue from the Unclassed State Forests as a source of income to the District Council of North Cachar Hills occupied the first position and is showing an upward trend since 1959- 60. From Rs.1,09,444/- it has increased to Rs.1,62,597/- in 1961-62 and to Rs.3,38,460/- in 1964-65. The revenue under this head comprises royalties from timber and other forest products of the Unclassed State Forests, share of royalty from the elephant hunting , and minerals and amount of compensation realised for forest offences. Below table shows the forest revenue of the North Cachar Hills District Council under different sub-heads between from 1959-60 to 1964-65 :-

Sub-head

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

Timbers

Firewood &

charcoal

Bamboos

.Elephants.

Other minor

forest produce.

Minor minerals.

Compensation

of forest offences.

Tender fees etc.

Sales Tax.

81,713

964

 

9,999

-

10,997

 

3,097

 

419

 

 

122

 

2,233

83,083

2,211

 

4,884

-

13,903

 

5,388

 

363

 

 

2,037

 

591

1,07,780

3,303

 

24,149

127

11,810

 

6,295

 

806

 

 

4,960

 

3,566

1,27,042

2,898

 

22,743

119

17,439

 

6,428

 

67

 

 

17,846

 

3,962

1,42,070

31,669

 

43,472

5

10,449

 

17,374

 

415

 

 

16,338

 

4,673

1,84,069

1,645

 

59,213

16,325

13,895

 

16,355

 

8,635

 

 

12,558

 

5,764

Total

1,09,544

1,14,460

1,62,597

1,99,544

2,66,465

3,38,460

Taxes on entry of goods into the markets and sales therein : Taxes on entry of goods into the markets and sales therein , as a source of revenue from the District Council 's own resources , occupy the third position. Receipts from this source is maintaining a gradual upward trend. From Rs.71,739/- in 1950-60, it rose to Rs.86,931/- in 1961-62 and to Rs.1,37,004/- in 1964-65. There are 6 bazars in North Cachar Hills under the control of the District Council North Cachar Hills. Each bazar is sold by auction to the Highest bidder called Bazar Mahaldars for a term of one year. Mahaldars collect taxes as per rates prescribed by the District Council from the shopkeepers who bring goods into the markets for sales therein. The following table shows the collection of taxes on entry of goods into the markets and sales therein :-

Head

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Taxes on

entry of

goods into markets

71,739

81,601

86,931

1,03,388

1,19,659

1,37,004

Markets Taxes : Receipts under the head Market Taxes, comprises receipts from rent on shop sites, latrine tax, licence fees, water tax and sale proceeds. The revenue under this head since last two years is declining. From an amount of Rs.11,5778 in 1959-60, it rose to Rs.19,302 in 1961-62. In the next year, it rose to its peak mark of Rs.32,406/- and since then, it began to decline and amounted to Rs.16,215/- in 1964-65. Below table shows the receipts under this head since 1959-60. :-

Sub-head

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Sale proceeds

Rent on

Shop sites

Latrine tax.

Licence fee.

Water tax.

4,552

 

4,425

 

366

2,172

63

5,973

 

9,641

 

736

3,312

90

7,276

 

8,630

 

833

2,434

129

12,427

 

15,293

 

1,739

2,624

323

12,082

 

8,721

 

1,017

2,792

151

8,608

 

4,221

 

436

2,869

81

Total

11,578

19,752

19,302

32,406

24,763

16,215

Taxes on animals, vehicles and boats : The North Cachar Hills District (Taxes) Regulation 1953, provides for levy and collection of taxes on animals and boats. Taxes at the rate of Rs.3/- per buffaloe and Rs1/- per cattle is realised from the professional graziers. Any boat belonging to non-tribal is liable to a tax of Rs.2/- per trip if made from the outside district to any station inside the district but empty boats are exempted. Boats belonging to tribals are not required to pay tax but they are to be registered on payment of the registration fee of Rs.4/- annually. Taxes on vehicles are being collected by the State Government at the rates equivalent to those in other parts of the State and the entire amount of collection after deducting the cost of services rendered are remitted to the District Council.

The receipts under this head is very small and comes to about Rs.4,546/- in 1964-65. This amount is only from taxes on animals . Between 1959-60 to 1965-65, no amount under the head taxes on vehicles was received by the District Council. During the same period receipts from the taxes on boats was also nil except an amount of Rupees 200/- each in 1960-61 and 1962-63. The table shows the revenue receipts of the District Council, North Cachar Hills , from the taxes on animals, boats and vehicles from 1959 to 1964-65 :-

Sub-head

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

Taxes on animals

Taxes on

vehicles

Boats

3,887

 

-

 

-

5,142

 

-

 

200

4,151

 

-

 

200

3,796

 

-

 

-

5,046

 

-

 

-

4,546

 

-

 

-

Total

3,887

5,342

4,351

3,796

5,046

4,546

Taxes on professions, trades, callings & employment and tolls on persons : Revenue receipts from this source though small is showing an upward trend accompanied by little fluctuations. The total collection from both the sources was Rs.5,969/- in 1959-60 and rose to Rs.8,333/- in 1961-62. In 1964- 65, it amounted to only Rs.8,286/- . Below table shows the revenue from this source from 1959 to 1964-65 :-

Sub-head

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

Taxes on

professions

trades, callings and employment.

Tolls on

persons

2,042

 

 

 

 

3,927

2,714

 

 

 

 

4,404

2,486

 

 

 

 

5,847

3,060

 

 

 

 

4,859

2,786

 

 

 

 

4,807

1,916

 

 

 

 

5,370

Total

5,969

7,118

8,333

7,919

7,593

8,286

Miscellaneous Receipts : Miscellaneous Receipts of the District Council from different heads since 1959-60 were as follows :-

Sub-head

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Rent or taxes.

Receipts on account of vehicles

Miscellaneous recoveries.

Miscellaneous fees

Advances and

Deposits

Revenue Adjust between District

Council & Assam

Govt

 

Administrationof Justice.

705

77

 

2,484

 

2,077

 

 

1,404

 

 

 

 

205

 

280

40

 

2,751

 

2,405

 

 

8,873

 

 

 

 

365

183

100

 

8,777

 

1,674

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

505

-

405

 

10,981

 

1,680

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

550

662

42

 

3,638

 

2,662

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

270

120

10,000

 

5,599

 

5,389

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

553

Total

8,437

22,057

13,275

21,112

10,588

26,561

Grants-in-aid from the State Govt. : Grants from the State Govt. form an important source of income to the District Council exchequer. The grants from the State Govt. received by the District Council , North Cachar Hills can be categorised under two heads , i.e., (i) rants for the development works and (ii) grants for the test relief works. Grants for development works are sanctioned annually against the specified schemes but the grants for the test relief works are not the recurring feature . Only in the year of 1963-64 and 1964-65, an amount of Rs.92,000/- and Rs.1,48,500/- respectively were received by the District Council of North Cachar Hills as test relief grants. Besides , a loan of Rs.1,47,000/- and Rs.30,000/- were received by the District Council of North Cachar Hills from the State Govt. in 1959-60, and 1960-61 respectively. Below table shows the grants and loan received by the District Council of North Cachar Hills from 1959-60 to 1964-65. :-  

Head

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Grants for developmentworks

Grants for test relief works

1,15,374

 

 

-

1,16,056

 

 

-

 

 

92,807

 

 

-

1,05,294

 

 

-

1,27,390

 

 

92,000

4,25,571

 

 

1,48,500

Total

1,15,374

1,16,056

92,807

1,05,294

2,19,390

5,74,071

Loans

1,45,000

30,000

-

-

-

-

Total of grants and loans

2,62,374

1,46,056

92,807

1,05,294

2,19,390

5,74,071

EXPENDITURE :The total expenditure of the District Council of North Cachar Hills was Rs.11,61,550/- in 1964-65. This is about three times of the expenditure incurred during 1960-61. The expenditure of the District Council may be divided under four heads of (i) establishment (ii) education (iii) development works and (iv) other expenditures (including buildings etc.). The details of the expenditure under these heads prior to the year of 1960-61, is not available.

Establishment : The expenditure under the head establishment includes the pay etc., of officers and staff including the District Council 's Members but excluding education. The expenditure under this head is showing an upward trend since 1960-61. From Rs.1,79,424/- in 1960-61 it has increased to Rs.2,43,547/- in 1963-64 and further rose to Rs.3,22,491/- in 1964-65. The spurt increase during the year 1964-65, is mainly attributed to the pay revisions etc., of the staff.

Education : Expenditure on education under the District Council of North Cachar Hills is showing a downward trend up to the year 1963-64. From Rs.48,309/- in 1960-61, it has gradually declined to Rs.34,915/- in 1963-64, but this expenditure steeply rose to Rs.3,50,680/- in 1964-65. This is mainly due to the transfer of Primary Schools from the State Govt. to the District Council of North Cachar Hills.

Development Works : Development Works under taken by the District Council , North Cachar Hills , mainly comprises rural communication, rural water supply , small irrigation schemes , rural housing schemes, improvements of markets etc. These development works are undertaken by the District Council from its own funds as well as from the grants received from State Govt. against schemes. The amount of expenditure on development works incurred by the District Council from its own fund has declined from Rs.19,164/- in 1960-61 to Rs.12,420/- in 1964-65. No uniform pattern is visualised as regards the amount of expenditure from Govt. grants. The total amount of expenditure on development works from both the sources was Rs.99,793/- in 1960-61 and rose to peak mark of Rs.1,24,314/- in 1962-63. Since then it began to decline and amounted to Rs.78,195/- in 1964-65.

Other expenditures : This head mainly comprises expenditure on buildings etc., and any other expenditure not included in the above described heads. The District Council since its establishment has constructed a number of buildings for its offices etc. The amount of expenditure incurred under this head was Rs.4,10,184/- during 1964-65. The following table shows expenditure of North Cachar Hills since 1960-61 to 1964-65 :-

Year

Expenditure on Establishment

i.e., pay and allowances of officers and staff including District Council's Members but excluding education

Education

Development works such as rural communication rural water supply self help schemes, improvement of bazars, construction of roads, ringwells water reservoirs or tanks and beautification of towns etc.

All other

expenditures

Grand Total

From Council's own res ources Grants

From

State

Govt

Total

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1960-61

1961-62

1963-63

1963-64

1964-65

1,79,424

1,79,401

2,24,338

2,43,547

3,22,491

48,309

47,515

36,276

34,915

3,50,680

19,164

22,914

7,349

13,095

12,420

80,629

48,407

1,16,965

94,312

65,776

99,713

71,321

1,24,314

1,07,406

78,195

1,11,227

1,72,858

88,848

2,30,553

4,10,184

4,38,753

4,71,095

4,73,776

6,16,421

11,61,550

(d) PANCHAYATS : Organisation and structure, powers and duties, financial sources, special achievements if any : The administration of Panchayats in the district comes under the preview of the two District Council of Karbi and North Cachar Hills . The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India has provided that the District Council shall have power to make laws with respect to the establishment of village or town committees or Councils, their powers and any other matter relating to village or town administration including village or town police and public health and sanitation. The District Council may constitute village council or courts for the trial of suits and cases between the parties all of whom belong to schedule tribes within their respective areas. The District Council may , with the previous approval of the Governor , make rules regulating (1) the constitution of village councils or courts and the powers to be exercised by them ; (2) the procedure to be followed by village councils or courts in the trial of suits and cases ; (3) the procedure to be followed in appeals and other proceedings ; (4) the enforcement of decisions and orders of such councils and courts ; (5) all other ancillary matters.

The village Councils of Village Courts as provided in the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India , have not yet been constituted by the District Council authorities in either of the two Autonomous Districts of Karbi and North Cachar Hills. However, there exist traditional Village Panchayats in all the tribal villages of the district. These are the products of customs and traditions and continue to exist since time immemorial. This system is traditional of indian society particularly in Assam. The Village Panchayat still decide petty cases in their respective villages according to their customs and traditions and it is perhaps due to the existence of these Panchayats that a very few number of cases of the people of rural Assam come to the court. The organisation of these Village Panchayats differ from tribe to tribe - though it is almost the same in the non-tribal plains villages. In North Cachar Hills , chief village authorities of these traditional Panchayats such as Mauzadars and Gaonburas are authorised to function as Village courts under the North Cachar Hills (Administration Of Justice) Rules, 1953.