Contents  
Chapter- 1: General
Chapter- 2: History
Chapter- 3: People
Chapter- 4: Agriculture & Irrigation
Chapter- 5: Industries
Chapter - 6: Banking, Trade & Commerce
Chapter - 7: Communications
Chapter - 8: Miscellenous Occupation
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 1
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 2
Chapter - 10: General Administration
Chapter - 11: Revenue Aministration
Chapter - 12 : Law & Order and Justice
Chapter - 13 : Other Departments
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part1
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part2
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part3
Chapter - 15 : Education and Culture
Chapter - 16 : Medical & Public Health Services
Chapter - 17 : Other Social Services

 

Chapter - 18 :  Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organisations
Chapter - 19 : Places of Interest
Chapter - 20 : Glossary

CHAPTER - IX
ECONOMIC TRENDS

Part 2

Components of the Average Annual Expenditure of Rural Families,

- Karbi Anglong sample. ( Non-Karbi villages)

(Size of average family consists of 5.7 members)

Items of expenditure

Value of

items ob-

Cash expenditure

Total expenditure

Percentage to total

1

2

3

4

5

Food Rice

Pulses..

Potato and

vegetables

Fish and meat.

.Salt and spices

Mustard oil.

Sugar and gur.

Milk and milk

products.

476.72

0.22

 

18

-

-

-

0.17

 

13.12

5.48

11.93

 

4.45

18.96

16.34

29.74

14.93

 

2.50

482.20

12.15

 

5.54

18.96

16.34

29.74

15.10

 

15.62

52.16

1.31

 

0.60

2.05

1.77

3.22

1.63

 

1.69

Total -

491.32

104.33

595.65

64.42


1

2

3

4

5

(B) Clothing

(C)Fuel and lighting

(D) Tea, toba-       Tea.

cco and                 Betel-nut.

drugs.                   Tobacco

                              Liquor.

8.20

-

-

4.87

-

5.57

84.34

13.47

14.13

21.10

41.11

1.59

92.54

13.47

14.13

25.97

41.11

7.16

10.00

1.46

1.53

2.81

4.45

0.77

Total -

10.44

77.93

88.37

9.56


1

2

3

4

5

(E) Miscellane- Wages.

ous. Interest.

Repairing of

homesteads.

Education.

Medical.

Marriages,

ceremonies etc.

Travelling.

Litigation.

Ornaments

Others.

-

-

 

-

-

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

44.70

0.70

 

-

30.83

5.30

 

10.96

12.04

-

-

30.14

44.70

0.70

 

-

30.83

5.30

 

10.96

12.04

-

-

30.14

4.83

0.08

 

-

3.33

0.57

 

1.19

1.30

-

-

3.26

Total

-

134.67

134.67

14.56

Grand Total

509.96

414.74

924.70

100.00


Out of the total expenditure of the Karbi villages 70.39% was incurred on food, 6.60 % on clothing, 0.98 % on fuel and light, 13.74 on tea, tobacco and drugs, and 8.29 % on miscellaneous group items which included education, medical service, travelling ,litigation , marriages, ceremonies etc. Expenditures on items like tea, tobacco and drugs appear to be high in the Karbi group of villages. This may be attributed to the fact that the hill tribes in general are addicted to the habit of smoking various kinds of tobacco which in some cases include opium also. Among the miscellaneous group items, the interest on loans, marriage and other ceremonial performances accounted for as much as 2.36% and 3.91% respectively. Expenditure on education was almost negligible while it was nothing for travelling. The Karbis collect their own fire-wood from nearby jungles and this accounts for very low expenditure under the group fuel and lighting. In the non-Karbi villages almost a similar pattern of family consumption expenditure was revealed except for some variations in the relative shares devoted to certain items of outlay. The share of expenditure incurred under clothing , tobacco, education, travelling and house- repairing is somewhat higher, while the same is lower under liquor, marriage and ceremonial performances, when compared with the Karbi village groups.

While the average estimates of consumption for all families is a wider of general economic and social concern, there is a probably even wider interest in informations on how families belonging to typical economic groups divide their incomes between their current living expenses and other outlays on goods and services. In the said sample survey, the families were classified into groups according to their incomes. The average net income and total expenditures for each group are shown as also the proportion of the total expenditures devoted to each of the main items of outlays in the table in the next page :-

It appears from the above that food was the largest single category of expenses at every income level demanding about two thirds or more of the average overall expenditure. It is significant also to note the marked increase in money outlays on food at successive income levels. Food expenses for the income class of Rs.600/- to 900/- was only Rs.439/- in the Karbi Villages, while at the income levels , 900/- and over, the average was Rs.743/-. On the other hand, in the non-Karbi villages, the food expenses for the income class of Rs.600/- to Rs.900/- average was only Rs.440 while in the income level Rs.1500/- and over, the average was about 3 times that amount. This wide range of expenditure is the result of very low standard of food consumption in the low income group and also of increasing number of consumption units in the families of higher income group.

The important striking feature revealed by the summary picture of the family income and expenditure presented in the above table is the average net deficits shown by all families in both the village groups in all the income groups, except for a small surplus of Rs.74/- in the income group of Rs.600/- to Rs.900/- in the Karbi Villages. For almost all families the entire family income was not adequate,on the average, to meet current outlays on food and other necessities and comforts of daily living. Even the advantage of comparatively larger average income was offset by the larger differential increase in the family expenditure due either to their larger family size or comparatively higher standard of living or both.

(b) GENERAL LEVEL OF EMPLOYMENT :

According to the 1961 Census , only 56.2 percent out of the total population were workers of whom 82.5 percent were engaged in agriculture and the rest 17.5 percent in industries other than agriculture. The following table shows some of the salient features of the general level of employment.

Name of occupation.

Nature of Employment.

Male

Female

Total

1.Agriculture

1.Cultivators.

2.Labourers.

72,470

1,850

55,110

374

1,27,580

2,224

Total

-

74,320

55,484 1

29,804

2.Household

industries

1.Employers

2.Others.

 

89

741

1,630

7,653

1,719

8,394

3.Non-household

industries

1.Employers.

2.Employees.

3.Single workers

4.Family Workers.

317

10,944

2,615

1,200

20

1,626

412

249

337

12,570

3,027

1,449

 

 

15,076

2,307

17,383


From the above, it may be said that in the agricultural sector the self-employed cultivators provided employment to 2,224 labourers consisting of 1,850 males and 374 females. The household industries provided employment to 1,719 employees, of whom 89 were males and 1,630 females, besides engaging 8,394 other workers. The non-household industries including services has a strength of 17,046 workers of whom 3,027 were single workers , 1,449 family workers and 12,570 employees. Of the employees 10,944 were males and 1,626 females.

According to employment market surveys conducted by the Employment Exchange at Diphu , the employment in the public sector rose from 7,359 to 7,720 in 1966 and thence to 7,779 in 1967. This shows an increasing trend of employment in the public sector in the district . The following table shows the Employment Exchange statistics regarding registration , submission and placement in the district from 1959 to 1963.

 

Year

Number of applications

S.T.

S.C

Others

A.Registration

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

981

1,163

980

854

703

173

210

285

243

193

19

28

24

6

16

789

925

671

605

494

Total -

 

4,681

1,104

93

3,484

B.Submission

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

463

642

443

402

478

104

46

122

52

248

14

16

11

2

9

344

400

310

348

221

Total -

 

2,248

573

52

1,623

 

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

170

115

32

25

58

226

10

12

5

27

2

6

1

-

1

142

90

19

20

20

Total -

 

400

99

10

291


The office of the District Employment Exchange in the district was opened at Diphu on March 2, 1959 to cater to the needs of employers and job seekers. It is under the control of the Director of National Employment Services, Shillong and is headed by one Assistant Employment Officer. There is one employment market section attached with district office.

(c) NATIONAL PLANNING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT :

The First Five Year Plan of Assam (1951-56) was preceded by the post-war developmental activities. The post-war programme which was responsible for the beginnings of educational and training institutions like the Assam Medical College, Assam Agricultural College, Assam Veterinary College, Assam Ayurvedic College and the Assam Forestry School, languished in 1949 when the central grants were curtailed or withdrawn as a result of the inflation then prevailing . The State Government was hard put to continuing these institutions which had been started , but soon after with the setting up of the Planning Commission , The First Five Year Plan of Assam was formulated to continue the tempo of development generated during the post-war years and to take up developmental activities in other spheres.

The First Five Year Plan of Assam was conceived as a modest effort designed to remove the shortages and disequilibrium in the economy following the War and Partition and to fulfil the needs of the most essential items like communication, agriculture, education, technical and vocational training & development in which the State was lacking.

The Second Five Year Plan of Assam sought to carry this process further, accelerate the rate of growth and to strengthen the institutional set-up designed to make the State's economy more progressive in terms of defined economic and social needs. It aimed at a balanced distribution of outlays between different sectors of development with particular emphasis on development of agriculture , irrigation , power, transport, education and health services.

During the Third Plan , while agriculture was given high priority, the requirements for accelerating the industrial development of the State as well as the development in social services, transport and power were kept in view. A special emphasis was placed on flood control.

The agricultural sector showed an upward trend in production but due to the occurrence of floods and absence of suitable flood protection measures and other factors, the expected progress was not achieved. The industrial development in the State suffered a setback as a result of the Chinese aggression and Indo-Pakistan conflict. The achievemant in physical terms in other sectors was also not entirely satisfactory.

Pending the finalisation of the Fourth Five Year Plan and the determination of well-defined strategy for development, during 1966-67, 1967-68 and 1968-69 ; ad-hoc plans have been taken up. These annual plans were formulated broadly on the basis of assumptions and concepts as indicated in the approach to the Fourth Five Year Plan and were designed to carry forward the state of development reached at the end of the implementation of Fourth Five Year Plan.11 The main factors that govern the level of development have been summarised as follows :

(i) A comparatively less-developed base : Unlike some other advanced and more developed States in the country , Assam embarked on her programme of plan development with a weak and less developed economy. The State had not received due attention in regard to the development of communications and other spheres of development during pre-Independence days. The Partition and the disruption of the channels of trade had put a further strain on the economy of the State. The lower level of development at the initial stages at the start of the planning process has been one of the reasons for accentuation of the difference in level of development in the State as compared to the other parts of the country.

(ii) Investment on Central projects : There was no investment on central industrial projects in Assam during the First and Second plan periods . During the Third Plan, the investment amounted to Rs.32.8 crores and the total investment as provisionally assessed upto 1968 amounted to Rs.40.2 crores which formed 1.6 percent of the total investment of the Central Government on industrial projects in various States. As compared to this, the investment in Orissa was 17.1 percent , in West Bengal 16.7 percent and in Bihar 14.6 percent.

(iii) Financial assistance by different financing institutions : The financial assistance including refinance facilities given by the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) was only 0.10 percent of the total assistance disbursed. Similarly , so far Assam received 2.87 percent of total assistance given by the Agricultural Re-finance Corporation as against 74.64 percent received by Andhra Pradesh and 10.17 percent received by Tamil Nadu. Assam received 2.28 percent of the rest financial assistance sanctioned by the Industrial Finance Corporation so far as against 15.11 percent by Tamil Nadu and 18.48 percent received by Maharastra. The State Banking Co-operative sector did not receive finance for long from the Reserve Bank of India since 1961.

(iv) Private investment : Investment in the private sector is governed by a variety of complex factors. The Chinese aggression and the Indo-Pak conflict acted as deterrents to private capital investment in the State. It is estimated that capital formation in the private sector in the State was of the order of Rs . 150 crores during the first two Plans and of the order of Rs.136 crores in Third Plan period. No accurate estimate of the anticipated private investment during the plan period can be made yet. It is clear that one of the reasons for low level of development in the State is the insufficiency of private investment during the plan periods.

(v) High price index : The trends in the price situation in assam have been very disquieting . The index of whole sale prices in Assam (base 1953-100) rose from 131 in 1960 to 136 in 1962, 149 in 1963, 212 in 1966 and to 247 in 1967. The high prices prevailing in the State had an obvious impact on the cost of living and neutralised the impact of rise in income. The consumer price index-number series show that there was a rise of 33.3 percent in the consumer price for the general working class during the Third plan Period. As a result of the persistent pressure of increasing prices there has been an irresistible demand for rise in wages and salaries. The Government had to accede to the demands for pay rise, the minimum wages of several categories of workers had to be revised upwards and the cost of the plan projects had gone up.

(vi) High rate of population growth : As already pointed out the rate of growth of population in the State has been the highest in the country and a greater effort and larger investment is needed to raise the level of development of the State .

(vii) Agricultural production : The Agricultural production in the State could not stabilise and show the affected adversely food production during the Third Five Year Plan period and the absence of suitable flood protection measures accentuated the gravity of the situation. On the other hand , drought affected certain areas in the State and lack of adequate irrigation facilities in a fall in agricultural production. As the agricultural sector contributes more than 48 percent to the total State income, the adverse trends in agricultural production have affected the State per capita income and consequently the level of development.

(viii) Shortage of technical and administrative personnel : In the first two Plans, the State faced a serious shortage of technical and administrative personnel. In the Third Plan, the difficulty had some what eased. In the Fourth Plan, the manpower difficulties have been considerably removed.

11. Fourth Five Year Plan of Assam (Proposals) : Department of Planning & Development Govt. of Assam, pp. 4-5.

Community Development : The Community Development Programme which is an integral part of the national planning of the country aims at all-round improvement of the rural economic and social conditions by means of evoking initiative and securing support and participation of the people in every sphere of development work. With this noble object, 55 original pattern Community Development Projects were started in India in October, 1952 . Each of these projects covered a fairly large area. In Assam, two such Projects were Taken up for execution - one in Cachar and the other in Darrang district. These projects were subsequently converted into Community Development Blocks.

Since then the programme has undergone several changes in light of experience gained in operation . It was found that projects with small areas were more suitable for all-round development. So , the National Extension Service Scheme was introduced in 1953, aiming at developing Blocks with small areas. So far,this district was not covered by the programme. It was only in October , 1954 , that two Blocks viz, Bokajan Block and Howraghat Blocks were opened . It may be mentioned that prior to introduction of the revised pattern of Blocks in 1956, each Block was in charge of a Project Executive Officer under the Deputy Commissioner and the Sub-divisional Officer, N.C.Hills who were also the Chairman of the respective District Councils till 1958. He was assisted by a team of technical officers for agriculture, animal husbandry, health , co-operation, social education and engineering. In addition to this stuff at the Block head quarters, there was for a convenient number of (usually ten or more) Gram Sevaks or multipurpose village-level workers. This organisation functioned as a team and brought to rural people the result of scientific research in agriculture and other fields, organised supplies and services needed for development programme, spread the co-operative movement in the country side and more important than anything else , stimulated local leadership and local initiative and harnessed the unutilised resources and human energy for all round development of the rural life.

The Blocks were converted to Community Development Blocks in 1956. Since then it requires each Blocks to pass through three stages of development viz., Pre-extension Stage, Stage I and Stage II of intensive development and then Post-Stage II lasts for one year and during this period preparatory works like survey of the Blocks and agriculture demonstrations are held by a nucleus staff with budget of Rs. 18,000/- . Then Stage - I of intensive development begins and continues for five years with a budget provision of Rs. 12 lakhs. Full Extension staff is provided for execution of this stage. This is followed by Stage II for five years with a budget provision of Rs. 5 lakhs. During this stage, some of the activities are expected to be taken over by the respective Departments and are financed from their budget. Then comes the Post -Stage II when the Blocks is completely normalised and all development activities are taken over by the different Departments and financed with their normal funds without any special provision Departments under the Community Development budget.

During the Second Five Year Plan period, three more Blocks were opened in United Mikir and North Cachar Hills district viz , Rongkhang and Diyung Valley Blocks in October , 1956 and Amri Block in October, 1960 , and rest four viz., Jatinga Valley , Nilip, Socheng and Lumbajang functioned as shadow Blocks. Subsequently , Jatinga Valley entered into Pre-Extension Stage by 1961 and others were covered by the end of 1963. In 1961, Bokajan , Howraghat, Rongkhang and Diyung Valley Blocks functioned in Stage II and Amri Block in Stage I. During 1967-68, the former four Blocks functioned in Post-Stage II, four others in Stage II and one in Stage I.

The following table shows some of the particulars of the Blocks in the district.

SI No

Name of the C.D. Blocks

Name of

Headquarters

Area in

Sq. km.

Population in ( 1000)

No. of villages

Date of estt

Present stage

1

Bokajan.

Bokajan.

358.4

17

222

Oct/54

Normalised

2

Howraghat.

Howraghat.

1,564.8

27

283

Oct/54

Normalised

3

Rongkhang

Dokamokam

480.0

19

400

Oct/56

Normalised

4

Diyung Valley

Maibong

1,280.0

20

160

Oct/56

Normalised

5

Amri

Ulukunchi

681.6

21

328

Oct/60

Stage II

6

Jatinga valley

Mahur

1,740.8

20

163

April/61

Stage II

7

Nilip

Chokihola

1,129.6

23

414

April/61

Stage II

8

Socheng

Jirikinding

761.8

15

259

Oct/62

Stage II

9

Lumbajang

Manja

1,475.2

16

226

Oct/62

Stage I


Staff Pattern : Till 1958, the Deputy Commissioner at diphu and the Sub-Divisional Officer at Haflong Chairman of the respective District Council were guiding the District Council in deliberations and actions pertaining to the development programmes executed by the Block, subject to the control of the Government. At present , the District Council have their own elected Chairman and Vice-Chairman and the developmental activities in the district are operated under the guidances of the elected Executive Members of the District Council , to whom the subject matter is entrusted by the Council. The staffing pattern of the Block at present is as follows : (1) One Block Development Officer who heads the organisational set-up of the Block , (2) Extension Officers , one each for Agriculture, Veterinary, Industry, Co-operatives , Social Education (3) Medical Officer, (4) Overseer, (5) Veterinary Field Assistants , (6) Gram Sevaks and Gram Sevikas, (7) Agriculture Demonstrators , (8) Sanitary Inspector , (9) Lady Health Visitor , (10) Cinema Operator and besides, other ministerial staff and grade IV staff.

The Block Development Officer remains in over-all executive charge of the Community Development Blocks. The Extension Officers are entrusted with the development works in the respective fields. The Block Development Officer and the Extension Officers are subjected to general control and supervision of the Deputy Commissioner ,but they are also put under the supervision and technical guidance of their respective Heads of Departments. The Gram Sevak plays a crucial role in planning and development at the village level, as he is the main instrument of execution of the schemes.

As in other districts of Assam, the post of the District Rural Development Officer functioning till 1960 was abolished and the post of the Sub-Divisional Planning Officer was created in each subdivision.

Governement Expenditure : The average expenditure per Block (excluding the amount spent on special programme) worked out to be Rs.1.98 lakhs during 1969-70 as compared to Rs.1.70 lakhs in 1968-69 and Rs.2.08 lakhs in 1967-68. The average expenditure per Block distributed on ten major heads of expenditure during the period is as follows.

(Rupees in thousand)

 

Major Heads

1967-68

1968-69

1969-70

 

1.Block Headquarters.

2.Animal Husbandry , and Agriculture

3.Irrigation

4.Reclamation

5.Health and Rural Sanitation

6.Education.

7.Social Education

8.Communication.

9.Rural Arts, Crafts and Industries.

10.Housing

 

00.9

32.3

20.7

8.3

8.2

6.5

4.9

13.8

3.1

9.3

 

112.5

19.4

5.0

7.0

3.6

2.2

2.7

7.2

1.4

90

 

 

109.8

20.5

17.9

10.0

7.0

5.2

4.1

12.9

2.3

8.1

Total

208.5

170.0

197.8

The total expenditure incurred by the Government in the Communiy Development Programme in Assam since 1952-53 to 1969-70 stands at Rs.3418.6 lakhs. The average people's contribution during 1969-70 stood at Rs. 1.6 thousand per Block.