Contents  
Chapter- 1: General
Chapter- 2: History
Chapter- 3: People
Chapter- 4: Agriculture & Irrigation
Chapter- 5: Industries
Chapter - 6: Banking, Trade & Commerce
Chapter - 7: Communications
Chapter - 8: Miscellenous Occupation
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 1
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 2
Chapter - 10: General Administration
Chapter - 11: Revenue Aministration
Chapter - 12 : Law & Order and Justice
Chapter - 13 : Other Departments
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part1
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part2
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part3
Chapter - 15 : Education and Culture
Chapter - 16 : Medical & Public Health Services
Chapter - 17 : Other Social Services

 

Chapter - 18 :  Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organisations
Chapter - 19 : Places of Interest
Chapter - 20 : Glossary

CHAPTER - XV

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

(a) HISTORICAL BACKGROUND :

(i) Centres of learning in ancient mediaeval and early modern times. :

No data or record authentic enough to trace out the history of education in ancient mediaeval times in the newly constituted district of United Mikir & N.C.Hills is available. It is gathered that some scholars from Nbadwip and Kanauj came during the Kachari reign in the later part of the eighteenth century to impart education to the children of the highups of the kacharis. The last two Kachaei Kings, Gobinda Chandra and Krishna Chandra were great Sanskrit scholars. It is said that Gobinda Chandra even tried to translate Mahabharata into Dimasa dialect. Even earlier to the period of Gobinda Chandra , an attempt was made to codify the Kachari Penal Laws (Kachari Danda Vidhi). In absence of the authentic information and records, it is difficult to trace out the system of education that was in vogue during the Kachari Kings. But it seems beyond doubt that whatever was the system of education, it was beyond the approach of the common man, otherwise some traces of that system must have come down by tradition to the people of the district.

The only form of educational institution that seems to have existed and is found even these days among the tribal people of the district is young man's club ; popularly known as ''Dekachang''. It was in these institutions that the needs of education of the tribal people to some extent were catered. Reading and writing were not taught ; but practical training in the art of agriculture, handicrafts, music, sports and tribal warfare was imparted.

Dekachang constructed by a village community is a big house and was considered essential in each village in ancient times. Even now it is commonly found among the tribal villages, especially in the hilly region of the district . It exerts a very strong influence in the village and on tribal life by fulfilling a variety of functions . A boy enters the Dekachang when he is twelve or thirteen years (in some tribes it is 6 to 7 years ) and remains there till he marries an sets up the house of his own. It is here that he fags for other boys and is taught his duties in life and generally hammered into shape and thus Dekachang tends to take the place of his father as a disciplinarian. It is here that the old men tell of the great deeds of the past and the coming generation is taught to carry out the old traditions in the future. Youths also take part along with other villagers in clearing of jungles, cultivation of fields, harvesting of crops and thus have a practical training in all aspects of agriculture which is the backbone of the village economy. Other curriculum are training in handicrafts like matmaking etc. and how to play with traditional musical instruments. In spirit it resembles the gurugriha and the gurukula system of ancient Hindu tradition. Youths are also given training in tribal warfare . All the community festival and social gatherings are held in front of or near the Dekachang and the members of the Dekachang are the active participants in all functions held in the village. Members are even ready to face any emergency like fire, flood, war etc. that may arise in the village. A very strict discipline is maintained by the youth commander. The houses of these institutions (i.e. Dekachang ) are the finest and the most ornamentally decorated , depicting the traditional art of a particular tribe. The basic functions and organisational set up of Dekachang known by different names among different tribes, are more or less the same though differing in minute details. The institution is known by ''Jirkedam'' among the Karbis, ''Morung" among Rengma Nagas ; ''Buonkawl'' among Hmars and ''Nodrang'' among Dimasa Kacharis.

The institution of Dekachan seems to be declining . It is almost extinct in the plain areas of the district. The reasons attributed to its decline seem partly the spread of education and partly the discouragement it received from missionaries who considered it a hindrance in spreading their messiah of Christianity. Parents now prefer to send their children to the primary schools than to Dekachang.

(ii) Beginning of Western Education : Western Education in the district began with the coming of the first missionary named late Rev. Garlen William to Haflong in 1905. He built the first mission house and a tiny school where he used to teach very few boys. When he left, the work was supervised by the Late Rev. Roose from Silchar and in 1912 Late Rev. J.M. Harris took over the mission work. It is during his time that many schools were established in the interiors of North Cachar Hills particularly in villages inclined to Christianity. It is said that first Primary school, in Bengali, was established at Gunjong in 1895, and the same year the subdivisional head quarter was shifted to Haflong and the school was closed. In 1909 and 1910, two primary schools were established at Boroarkap and Jatinga respectively. In 1912,the first Mission Middle English School was started in the Haflong town by the Presbyterian Mission. In the meantime, a Bengali Venture Middle School was set up. Besides the above schools, any other primary schools established by the Presbyterian Mission in the early thirtieth of the twentieth century.

Many more schools were established after this period but since 1951 gradually the Mission Schools have been handed over to the Govt. for better running of the same . In 1963, only 24 Primary Schools with the strength of 380 students were under the Mission.

After the lapse of about 12 years since the establishment of the two Middle Schools at Haflong , one Lower Primary School was established through public efforts and contribution at Maibong . In 1939, it was converted into Middle School, keeping the Lower Primary School activities of missionaries were also noticed in Karbi but no record could be traced.

State activity in the field of education : As the present district was formed in 1951, the educational activities , prior to the formation of the district in the areas comprising the present district, were under the control of Deputy Inspector of Schools , Nowgong , Golaghat, Shillong and Silchar. Due to the non-availability of the relevant informations, it is not possible to say at what time , State Govt. first took up the cause of the education by establishing the Lower Primary Schools or Middle Schools in the areas comprising the present district. In the areas under the administrative control of Deputy Inspector of Schools , Nowgong , only five schools, (one Middle School and four Lower Primary Schools ) with a total enrolment of 124 were reported to be functioning in 1931. This, however, increased to 57 in 1951, there having been 3 Middle English Schools, one Middle Vernacular School and 53 Lower Primary Schools, with a total enrolment of 1,991. In areas under control of Deputy Inspector of Schools , Golaghat, there were 32 Schools , 23 Lower Primary Schools, 7 Venture Schools , one Middle English School and one Middle Vernacular School with total enrolment of 952, functioning in 1941. The number of schools increased to 64 with total enrolment of 2,132 in 1951. Out of these 64 schools, there were 3 MIddle English Schools , two Govt. Aided MIddle English Schools , one Govt. Middle Vernacular School , 34 Govt. Lower Primary Schools , 16 Board's Lower Primary Schools and one Govt. Aided Lower Primary School . Besides, eleven Social Education Centres with the enrolment of 167 were reported to be functioning during the same year. In 1954, there were only 7 Lower Primary Schools under the Deputy Inspector of Schools , Shillong. During the same year North Cachar Hills had 68 Schools of which 66 were Lower Primary Schools and two Middle English Schools under the Deputy Inspector of Schools .

The office of the Deputy Inspector of Schools , United Mikir and North Cachar Hills was established on 30th Nov, 1953 with the appointment of the Deputy Inspector of Schools with headquarters at Diphu vide Govt. letter No. PD/TW (7L)62/43/14 Dated 24th Sept, 1953. He was given jurisdiction over all the Primary and MIddle Schools in the United Mikir and North Cachar Hills district previously falling under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Inspector of Schools of the parent districts and accordingly the transfer of the schools took place gradually in 1954.

Thus at the outset in 1954, there were 210 Govt. Lower Primary Schools (including 66 Board's Primary Schools later on merged with the Govt. Schools ) , 10 Govt. Aided Lower Primary Schools , 8 Govt. Middle English Schools, one Govt. Middle Vernacular School and 22 Private or Vernacular Schools. The number of Govt. Lower Primary Schools increased to 149 in the same year with opening and taking over of some schools. Strength of Govt. Aided Schools reduced to one only. The number of Middle English Schools and Middle Vernacular Schools remained static, two High Schools , one Govt. High School and another Govt. Aided High Schools started functioning. Besides, 11 junior Basic Schools were also opened in the district.

Both the District Council of Karbi and North Cachar Hills also entered the field of education by establishing a number of primary schools in their respective areas . The District Council of Karbi which was established (formerly known as the District Council of Mikir Hills ) on 23rd. June, 1952 , established 33 numbers of Lower Primary Schools which on next year increased to 51 and subsequently increased to 97 in 1959-60. The District Council of North Cachar Hills also established 6 nos. of Lower Primary Schools in 1956-57 which increased to 16 in 1959-60.

The number of schools doubled during the last 10 years. It has increased from 367 in 1954 to 816 in 1964. The increase in the number of students was almost three times and during the period, the number of students increased from 12,187 to 37,023. Along with the increase in the number os schools, the direct and indirect expenditure on schools also increased tremendously during the same period. The total direct and indirect expenditure increased from Rs.3,48,139/- and Rs.36,473/- in 1954 to Rs.17,65,950/- and Rs.2,13,921/- in 1964. A beginning was also made in the field of industrial education by opening a Govt. Training -cum-Production Centre at Diphu and three Weaving Training Centres at Haflong, Sariahjan and Diphu . Recently one Industrial Training Institute has also shifted to Diphu from Tezpur. Besides, two Colleges, one at haflong (in1961) and another at Diphu (in 1965) have also been established with public efforts. A good numbers of Social Education Centres were also opened to eradicate illiteracy among the adult population of the district. A statement of yearwise growth of Educational Institutions and total direct and indirect Expenditure is given in Appendix I & II . The boys and girls of these Educational Institutions are shown in Appendix III.

(b) LITERACY AND EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS : (i) Growth of general literacy : The district occupies the lowest position in matters of literacy and educational standards among the districts of Assam. In 1951, the percentage of literacy was only 5.87 i.e. far less than one third of the percentage of literacy of 18.2 for the whole of the State of Assam. The percentage of literacy for males stood at 9.26 and for female at 2.17. The total number of literates was 9,728 out of which 8,008 were male and 1,720 females. The Sub-divisional wise figures of literates, male and female of North Cachar Hills and Karbi were 3,828 , 3,012 , 816 and 4,644 , 4,146 , and 498 respectively (figures of Block I and II in Karbi were not included ). Though Karbi had a larger number of literates than North Cachar Hills , comprising the size of population of both the sub-divisions the percentage of literacy in North Cachar Hills came far higher tham that of Karbi . In case of female literates also North Cachar Hills occupied the better place. Its female literate population was almost double than of Karbi.

During the decade of 1951-561, there was some improvement in the percentage of literacy but the position of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills among the districts of Assam remained unchanged. Literacy percentage increased from 5.87 in 1951 to 17.4 in 1961. There were 48,782 literates out of the total population of 2,79,72 according to the Census of 1961. The percentage of literacy for males improved from 9.26 in 1951 to 24.97 in 1961 and that of females from 2.17 in 1951 to 7.4 in 1961. Only 38,799 males and 9,483 females were returned as literates, during the Census of 1961. The sub-division wise figures on literates, males , and females for Karbi and North Cachar Hills were 38,144 ; 30,971 ; 7,173 and 10,638 ; 7,828 ; 2,910 respectively. As regards the educational level of the literates in the district , 35,321 were literates of without any educational standard 12,319 were of primary and junior basic standards, and 1,142 were of matriculation and above as per the Census of 1961. The details of educational standard as per age and sex is given in Appendix IV.

Spread of education among women : That the education among women has not made much headway in this district was evident from the Census figures of 1951 and 1961 given in the preceding paragraphs. This is perhaps due to the fact that women are yet more bound to their household chorus and jhum works. Their shy nature is also accountable for their being kept confined with the house-hold affairs. These coupled with the no existence of educational institution for women also accounted for the slow progress of education among the women of the district.

The Census of 1951 placed the percentage of literacy of women at 2.17 and the total number of women literates at 1,720 out of which 816 were in the North Cachar Hills and 498 in Karbi . More deplorable it becomes in Karbi if the percentage of literacy among the women is calculated taking into consideration its total female population of 59,965.

During the decade of 1951-561, there was some improvement in the percentage of literacy but the position of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills ,965.

During the decade of 1951-61, a slight improvement in female education is noticeable. The percentage of literacy increased from 2.17 in 1951 to 7.4 in 1961. The total number of women literates in 1961 stood at 9,983 out of the total female population of 1,29,599. The sub-division wise figures of women literates in Karbi and North Cachar Hills stood at 7,173 and 2,810 out of the total female population of 1,04,367 and 25,232 respectively. Of the 9,983 female literates, 7,844 were without any educational standard 2,048 were primary and junior Basic standard and 91 were matriculation and above standard.

Before 1954, there was only one Girl's L.P. School at Haflong . But in recent years, some more educational institutions exclusively for females have come up. In 1964, there was one girl's Pre-Primary School, one Girl's Govt. L.P. School , one Girl's Govt. Aided M.E. School, and one Girl's unaided High School in the North Cachar Hills and one Girl's Aided High School in Karbi. Besides these institutions rest of the educational institutions in the district are co-educational, and girls received their education along with the boys.


The above two tables show a gradual rise in the number of girl students in the district . The rise is almost five times. It has increased from 2,638 in 1954-55 to 11,180 in 1964-65.

Spread of education among backward classes : The advancement of the scheduled tribes engaged the attention of the Britishers in the Pre-Independence days, and perhaps in order to advance and safeguard the tribal interests in land and to prevent them from exploitation by the more advanced communities, that Karbi and North Cachar Hills were constituted into three '' Partially Excluded Areas '' under Nowgong, Sibsagar and Cachar districts. But little or no thought was given by the then Govt. for the promotion of economic and social welfare of these people. This had an adverse effect on the tribal people and resulted in isolating them. This policy of isolation erected an iron curtain around them which shut-out all contacts with other people of Assam. As a result, they remained undeveloped economically and socially. Their needs and aspirations were not known to others beyond the confines of their in-habitance. Whatever little welfare activities reached the people , came from the Christian Missionaries. Their activities were also confined to the establishment of a few primary schools or night schools particularly in Christian villages.

But since Independence , Govt. took active and keen interest in the education of the scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, and other backward classes. Special scholarships and various financial concessions were offered to attract the boys and girls from these communities. Education up to the primary level is free to all in the district and the children from the above communities get exemption of tuition fee up to the Matriculation level. Besides, these are reservations of seats in the higher educational and other technical institutions in the State. As a result of the steps taken by the Govt. percentage of literacy for the whole of the population of the district has progressed from 5.87 in 1951 to 17.4 in 1961. The Census of 1961 places the number of literates belonging to scheduled tribes and scheduled castes in the district to 22,976 and 752 respectively. The sub-division - wise figures of literates ; male and female , belonging to scheduled tribes in Karbi and North Cachar Hills were 14,392 ; 4,831 and 2,114 ;1,639 and that of scheduled castes 450 ; 158 and 118 ; 26 respectively . No special school or educational institution has been provided for the advancement of education of these communities as the district is predominantly inhabited by the scheduled tribes. As per Census of 1961, scheduled tribes and scheduled castes accounted for 2,11,331 (75.55%) and 6,789 (2.43%) out of the total population of 2,79,726.

Due to the increase in the number of educational institutions and the steps taken by the Govt. described above there has been a steady increase in the number of students belonging to the scheduled tribes, scheduled castes and plains tribes and other backward classes. Their enrolment has increased from 8,435 ; 352 and 2,225 in 1954 to 6,339 ; 983 and 3,901 in 1964. The progress of the enrolment of the students of these communities since 1954 to 1964 is given in Appendix III.

(c) GENERAL EDUCATION :

Primary Schools : It is not possible to say when the first State or Local Board Primary School was established in the district as there are no authentic records available to ascertain it. However, it goes beyond denial that Missionaries were the pioneers to take up the cause of education by establishing few primary schools in 1912 in the North Cachar Hills as mentioned in the preceding paragraphs.

The table above shows that in the first two decades since 1931, the growth of L.P. Schools was at a very slow pace as the increase in the number of Lower Primary Schools during these twenty years was only about 100 but since then the growth is impressive one and has increased from 104 in 1951 to 701 in 1964-65. The increase is almost seven times. Along with the increase in the number of schools a steady increase in the number of students is also noticeable. From 3,274 in 1954 , the number of students has increased to 27,564 in 1964. Scheduled tribes constituted about 70% of the total students and rest were scheduled castes, plains tribes and other backward classes and others.

The course of the L.P. Schools is for five years and the classes consist of A. B. 1, II and III. The size of the classes are small except the class A. The medium of instruction in majority of the Lower Primary Schools is Assamese except in a few schools where mediums of instruction are Bengali and English.

Junior Basic Schools : Junior Basic Schools are comparatively of recent origin in the district. The course of the Junior Basic Schools is also of five years and consist of five classes from class I to class V. In the year of 1954-55, there were only eleven Govt. Junior Basic Schools and since then the number of Govt. Junior Basic Schools is gradually on increase either by opening of new Junior Basic Schools or conversion of Lower Primary Schools into Junior Basic Schools .

As stated elsewhere, the Primary Education, prior to the formation of the district, in the areas comprising the present district, were under the control of the Deputy Inspector of Schools at Nowgong , Golaghat, Shillong and Silchar. This arrangement continued till the opening of the Office of the Deputy Inspector of Schools at Diphu in 1954. With the opening of this office, all the primary schools falling within the areas of the present district were transferred from the administrative control of the above mentioned Deputy Inspector of Schools to the Deputy Inspector of Schools , Diphu . In 1959, another Office of the Deputy Inspector of Schools was opened at Haflong with jurisdiction over primary Schools in the North Cachar Hills . Primary Education thus came under the administrative control of the two Deputy Inspector of Schools , Diphu and Haflong exercising jurisdiction in their respective sub-divisions of Karbi and North Cachar Hills.

Under para 6 of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India, the District Council of autonomous district is empowered to establish, construct, and manage primary schools and prescribe the language and the manner in which Primary Education shall be imparted in the primary schools in the autonomous districts . In pursuance to this , all the Govt. primary schools in the autonomous District of Karbi And autonomous District of North Cachar Hills were transferred to the respective District Council s of Karbi and North Cachar Hills on 1.4.61 & 1.4.64. Primary Education now is managed by the two separate District Boards of Primary Education for Karbi and North Cachar Hills . Each of these Boards consists of nine members. The Executive Member of the respective District Council in-charge of the Education Portfolio is the Chairman of the District Board of Primary Education and the respective Deputy Inspector of Schools is the ex-officio Secretary.

Secondary Schools : Secondary Schools in the district are divided into two categories of schools , i.e., High Schools and Middle Schools. High Schools are under the direct charge of the Inspector of Schools , Nowgong, and the Middle Schools are under the charge of the two Deputy Inspector of Schools placed at Diphu and Haflong. Deputy Inspector of Schools initiates every scheme with the object of improving the standard of teaching and the general maintenance of the schools. The schemes of the classes are prepared by the Department of Education. It also prescribes the text books up to class VIII . The University of Gauhati prescribes the text books for the two classes, i.e., IX and X , of High Schools.

It is not known when the first Middle Schools was established in the district as the authentic information is not available. The first Govt. Middle English School (M.E. School) in the areas which formed part of the Nowgong district, was established on 1.1.38. at Tika. The other Middle Schools established in the same areas were one at Bokalia (Middle Vernacular School) on 1.4.46. and one each at Merok and Umpani (both Middle English Schools) in 1951. During the decade of 1941, two Middle School were reported to be functioning in the areas formerly forming part of the Sibsagar district. The date of the establishment of these schools could not be ascertained. The number of Middle Schools in the same areas rose to 6 during the next decade.

In the year 1954-55, there were only 28 Middle Schools and 2 High Schools . Out of the 28 Middle Schools , 8 were Govt. Middle English Schools, one Govt. Middle Vernacular School,14 Govt. Aided Middle English Schools and 4 Private or Venture Middle English Schools and one Venture Middle Vernacular School. Of the two High Schools functioning in the district , one is Govt. High School and the other is Venture High School . The Govt. High School established at Haflong was the first High School in the district. It was mainly a Private School raised to the status of a High School in 1946 and provincialised on 17th Nov., 1951. The number of boys and girls receiving education during the same year , in Middle Schools were 842 and 169 and that in High Schools were 338 and 92 respectively. The scheduled tribes students in the Middle Schools and High Schools accounted for 710 and 200 respectively.

In 1955-56, 4 private or Venture Middle Schools were added to the existing 28 Middle Schools . The number of High Schools remained unchanged. The total enrolment rose to 1,124 in Middle Schools and to 497 in High Schools . Out of these students , there were 925 boys and 199 girls in Middle Schools and 390 boys and 107 girls in High Schools . The scheduled tribes students in the two categories of schools were 924 and 95 respectively.

The number of Middle Schools declined from 32 in the previous year to 27 in 1956-57 due to the winding up of 5 nos. of Private or Venture Middle Schools . One more Venture High School was added to the existing two High Schools . Contrary to the decline of number of Middle Schools , the enrolment increased to 1,305 out of which 1,099 were boys and 206 girls. The number of scheduled tribes students in Middle and High Schools were 1,027 and 295 respectively.

The number of Middle Schools and High Schools in the district rose to 40 and 12 respectively in 1959-60. Out of the 40 Middle schools, 2 Govt. Middle English School and 5 Private or venture Middle English Schools were in N.C. Hills and 7 Govt. Middle English Schools , one Govt. Middle Vernacular Schools , 20 Govt. Aided Middle English Schools and 5 Private or Venture Middle English Schools were in Karbi . Of the 12 High al in the district , two were Govt. High Schools , one each in the Karbi and North Cachar Hills . Out of the remaining High Schools , 4 Govt.Aided High Schools and 5 Private or Venture High Schools were in Karbi one Venture High School in North Cachar Hills . The umber of students during the same year increased to 2,296 in Middle Schools and 1,268 in High Schools . The students belonging to scheduled tribes were 1,713 and 512 respectively in the above two categories of Schools.

Since 1959, the Middle Schools and high Schools further rose to 56 and 13 respectively in the year of 1964-65. Out of the 56 Middle Schools , there were 14 Govt. Middle English Schools , 1 Govt. Middle Vernacular School, 34 Govt. Aided Middle English Schools and 7 private or venture Middle English Schools and of 13 High Schools , there were two Govt. High School , 5 Govt. Aided High School and 6 private or Venture High School . There were 3,098 boys and 803 girls and 1,439 boys and 506 girls students respectively in Middle Schools and High Schools in the district during the same year. The students belonging to Scheduled tribes in the two categories of schools were 2,729 and 836 respectively.

There has been considerable expansion of facilities for awarding scholarships, free-studentships and other financial concessions to the students prosecuting studies in Middle and High Schools . All tribal students right from Primary to High School stage are exempted from payment of tution fees.

Colleges : Collegiate education in the district is just at its nascent stage. The first college in the district was established in 1961 at Haflong while the second college was started at Diphu in 1965. Both the colleges are Arts college and both have been established with public efforts and continue to be managed by them. Proposal to take over both the colleges by Govt. is under consideration.

Haflong College : Haflong College was started at Haflong in the North Cachar Hills through public efforts on 4th Sept. 1961. The enrolment during that year consisted of 51 students with the teaching staff and five lecturers including one Vice Principal. The College is now full fledged Degree Arts College having an enrolment of 146 students in 1964. The number of teaching staff has also increased to 15 during the same year. The College proposed to construct the building of its own with an estimated cost of Rs.1,40,000/- .

Diphu College : Diphu College was established at Diphu in Karbi , the District head-quarters of the United Mikir and North Cachar Hills District on 15th . July 1964 with public efforts. The College has only one class i.e. Pre - University Class, with a total enrolment of 70 students, 65 boys and 5 girls. Of these 70 students , 22 belong to scheduled tribes, 10 to scheduled castes and 17 plains tribes and other backward classes. There were 4 boys and 1 girl receiving scholarships and 1 boy getting half free-studentship. The number of teaching staff was 7 including the Principal. The College became a full fledged Degree Arts College from 1967. During the year 1965-66, the College received a grant of Rs.50,000/- (Rs.25,000/- from the State Govt. and Rs.25,000/- from the District Council of Karbi .

(d) PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES : Toy Factory , Diphu : On 21st. January 1957, the state Government opened a Toy Factory Training-cum-Production Centre at Diphu with a view to provide technical education to the tribal people of the district. Besides, providing free hostel accommodation, the trainees get Rs.40/- each per month as stipend. The students are being imparted with both theoretical and practical training in manufacture of wooden toys, solid and flat, educational toys, ragdolls, paper and pulp dolls and so on . Steps have also been taken to impart training in making plastic and rubber dolls to the students. Carpentry section has also been added to the institute. The first batch of 5 trainees completed the two year's training in 1959. The second batch consisting of 9 trainees completed the course in 1961.

Industrial Training Institute, Diphu : The institute is the latest but the most important addition in the field of industrial education in the district. It was established by the Govt. at Diphu on 1.4.64 with a view to encourage technical education in the district. The institution at present offers instructions in trades of carpentry , fitter, welder and black-smithy, but there is a provision for expansion of the institute during the Fourth Five Year Plan providing training facilities with 32 seats each in (a) Motor Mechanic (b) Turner (c) Wireman and (d) Electrician. The duration of the course is of 18 months. The number of students on roll during 1964-65 and 1965-66, was 29 and 36, of which 5 and 12 belong to scheduled tribes. The strength of teaching staff during the same year was 6 and 9 respectively. No tuition fee is charged from the trainees. They are also provided with free hostel accommodation. In 1964-65, 14 trainees were awarded stipends of which 8 were awarded merit stipends @ Rs.25/- per month, five hill tribes (a) Rs.15/- per months and one trainee was awarded poor stipends @Rs.10/- per month.

Hindi Training School, Diphu : The Hindi Training School was first established at Misamari in Tezpur sub-division of Darrang District on 21st July 1952 with a view to impart training in teaching of Hindi in the State of Assam. Due to Chinese Aggression in 1962, the School was shifted to Diphu along with its students and staff on 1st. April 1963. It is housed at present in the building constructed for Primary Teacher's Basic Training School.

Teachers as well as fresh candidates are admitted to the School . Every trainee gets a stipend of Rs.45/- per month. The capacity of the institute is of 125 (both male and female ) . But due to lack of hostel accommodation, female candidates are not given admission from the session of 1963. The trainees on the roll in 1963 and 1964 were 107 and 119 respectively. The total expenditure during these two years was Rs.70,103.28 P. and Rs.71,346/- respectively.

Gramudyog Vidyalaya, Sariahjan : Gram Udyog Vidyalaya, Sariahjan was established by the Mikir Hills Seva Kendra in 1959. to give training in carpentry, ghani, and in the work of fitter and soap making . All the trainees in these sections were tribal. Its staff consisted of two trained Instructors and one trained demonstrator.

(c) SCHOOLS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF FINE ARTS :

Diphu Music School : The Music School at Diphu was established under the auspices of Diphu Kala Kendra in 1956. It is imparting training to children as well as to adults in vocal and instrumental music and dances etc. Special emphasis is laid on the revival of tribal arts and culture. The Institution has undertaken research work in tribal music and dance and is contemplating to publish a book on completion of research work. It is getting a recurring grant of Rs.150/- per month from the District Council of Karbi . The enrolment of the students in the school was fifty in 1964-65 and the strength of teaching staff was three.

Haflong Music College : Haflong Music College was established on 1.9.62. but later on converted and was named ''Haflong Music College'' The College is now affiliated to Bhatkandy Sangeet Vidyapith, Lucknow. The College have five classes consisting of two classes in vocal music, one class in Tabla, one in dace and one in sitar. The classes are held four days a week. In 1964-65, there were 39 students on the role in the college, of which 12 were tribal students. During the same year the number of teaching staff was four of which 3 were trained in Bhatkandy Sangeet Vidyapith, Lucknow.

The College is managed by a managing committee of 11 members including the office bearers. In 1964-65, the College has received a grant of Rs.3,950/- from the Govt. of Assam including an amount of Rs.375/- from the District Council , N.C. Hills. Under the auspices of the College, two Music Conferences were held in 1963 and 1964 . Proposals are there for the opening of some classes in tribal dance and Music.

(f) ADULT LITERACY AND SOCIAL EDUCATION :

With a view to spread literacy among the people , Adult Education Centres are organised in the villages by the Education Department as well as by the Community Development Blocks. Duration of these centres is 8 months. This 8 months period is divided into three phases (i) The first phase for 4 months and second and third phase for 2 months respectively. Adults are taught reading and writing. Discourses are also arranged on current problems and topics. After the completion of course, test is held and the result is declared. The number of Adult Education Centres varies from year to year and no uniform pattern is visualised due to non-availability of informations from all concerned.

(g) CULTURAL, LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES :

Assam Sahitya Sabha : A branch of the Assam Sahitya Sabha was established at Diphu in 1959 with a view to hold literary and cultural discourses. It also aims at promotion of local tribal languages or dialects and fostering harmony amongst divergent linguistic groups.

Diphu Club : The Diphu club was established in 1964 with a view to promote sports and games as well as to provide recreation and amusement to the people of the town. The club has its library with a collection of 585 books, tribal arts and crafts show room, auditorium and a full fledged stage for performance of drama dance etc. It has also a section of sports and games outdoor and indoor games and conducts annual competition and awards trophies to the winners.

The club is conducting two shield competitions. One in the name of J.B. Rajkhowa, the final game of which is usually played on 15th of August every year syncronizing the Independence Day celebrations and other in the memory of Munindra Choudhury which was donated by Shri P.C. Choudhury, in the name of his son.

The football league competition was also run by this club prior to organisation of the Karbi Sports Association in 1959 but it has been transferred to the said association for conducting the league competition at Diphu . It also runs one volley-ball competition , the final of which is played every year on 26th January, the Republic Day.

With a view to encourage the artists and for infusing a competitive spirit amongst the youngsters , the club has also introduced a scheme of annual prize awards to the best participants from 1962. The members of the club are also taking part annually in Assam One Act Play Conference since 1961.

The club has about 150 members and 13 life members. One can become a member of the club on payment of Rs.2/- as admission fee and Rs.1/- as a monthly fee, life membership is granted on payment of Rs.250 in cash. The General Meeting of the club also can confer life membership to a person in recognition of his valuable services rendered to the club. Besides, the club serves as a Public Hall for all public gatherings, meetings etc. official or non-official, held in the town.

Central Cultural Institute, Haflong : The building of the institute with the stage attached to it was constructed by the District Council , North Cachar Hills , out of the grants for such purposes received from the Govt. during the period from 1955 to 1958. The District Council , North Cachar Hills has also contributed Rs.10,000/-. Some amount was also donated by the local people. Facilities for indoor games and some outdoor games are available at the Institute . Like the Diphu club, it is also the nerve centre of all social gatherings and meetings at Haflong.

Hmar Literary Society, Moolhai Haflong : The Hmar Literary Society was established in 1954 in Moolhai village situated at a distance of about 3 kms. from Haflong. The objects of the society are the eradication of illiteracy among the Hmar Community and their social up-liftment, promotion of better understanding among different tribes and rendering financial assistance to the needy students. The society is managed by an Executive Committee of 8 members including President.

The society has constructed one library hall at Moolhai at the cost of Rs.1400/-. The construction of the said hall was undertaken on voluntary basis by the local people of Moolhai village in addition to the Govt. grants. The society has published 10,000 copies of Hmar - Hindi text books to be used as a school text book upto the standard VI with a sum of Rs.1000/-. It also intends to publish some more books such as Hmar - Assamese , Aesopis Fables etc. and the books are under preparation . Proposal for improvement of football field at Moolhai is also there with the society.

Cultural Institute of Shreemanta Sankar Mission : Shreemanta Sankar Mission , Nowgong has also established two cultural institutes, one at Ouguri and the other at Tumpreng in Karbi . Cultural programmes of these institutes usually are of local interest.

Besides the above , there are some youth clubs functioning in the different parts of the district under the patronage of the Community Development Blocks.

(h) LIBRARIES : Only recently two libraries, one at Diphu and other at Haflong , has been established by the State Government.