Contents  
Chapter- 1: General
Chapter- 2: History
Chapter- 3: People
Chapter- 4: Agriculture & Irrigation
Chapter- 5: Industries
Chapter - 6: Banking, Trade & Commerce
Chapter - 7: Communications
Chapter - 8: Miscellenous Occupation
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 1
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 2
Chapter - 10: General Administration
Chapter - 11: Revenue Aministration
Chapter - 12 : Law & Order and Justice
Chapter - 13 : Other Departments
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part1
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part2
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part3
Chapter - 15 : Education and Culture
Chapter - 16 : Medical & Public Health Services
Chapter - 17 : Other Social Services

 

Chapter - 18 :  Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organisations
Chapter - 19 : Places of Interest
Chapter - 20 : Glossary

CHAPTER - XIV

LOCAL SELF - GOVERNMENT.

Part 1

(a) HISTORY OF LOCAL - SELF GOVERNMENT IN THE DISTRICT

The history of the Local-Self Government in the District of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills may be traced back to the year 1895 when the sub-divisional head-quarters from Gunjung were transferred to Haflong and following the construction of Assam Bengal Railway line (Hill Section) in 1904, the inevitable necessity of opening of a regular hat (market) in the area arose. Proposal was submitted to the Govt. and the then Chief Commissioner of Assam sanctioned the creation of Haflong Bazar Fund which continued to function till 1912 when it was changed to Bazar Fund to North Cachar Hills. In 1931 ,Haflong Town Fund Committee was constituted with five members 1 under The Assam Municipal Act, 1923, with the S.D.O. , North Cachar Hills, Haflong , as Chairman and D.E.N. (II) Assam Bengal Railway , Haflong , as Vice Chairman and other three nominated members - two under the nomination of Governor and the one under the nomination of the Agent, Assam ,Bengal Rly. The Committee was known as the Town Fund Committee , Haflong.

Under the Sixth Schedule to the constitution of India , autonomous status was conferred on erstwhile Mikir Hills sub-division and the North Cachar Hills Sub-division constitution them into Mikir Hills autonomous District and North Cachar Hills autonomous District. Name of Mikir Hills since has been changed to Karbi Anglong. The establishment of a Village or Town Committee within the autonomous district is vested with the District Council of the respective autonomous district under the Sixth Schedule to the constitution of India and accordingly, in pursuance to that, both the District Councils have passed Acts and framed rules thereunder for the administration and constitution of the Town Committee in their respective areas.

The North Cachar Hills District Council passes The North Cachar Hills District (Administration Of Town Committee s ) Act , 1956 and framed rules thereunder by enacting The North Cachar Hills District (Constitution Of Town Committee s ) Rules , 1963. Under Section 3 of The North Cachar Hills District (Town Committee s), Act , 1956, the Executive Committee may by notification published in the Assam Gazette, signify its intention to costitute a Town Committee for any specified area where it considers improved arrangements are necessary to deal with all or any of the matters referred to in the Schedule appended to this Act. It is also provided that for such notified area a Committee consisting of such members to beappointed or elected on the basis of adult suffrage or partly so appointed and partly so elected as the Executive Committee may by notification direct. The Haflong Town Committee in North Cachar Hills functioning since 1931 came under the purview of the said Act where in, it is provided under the Sub-Section 5 of the Section 4 of the Act that Haflong Town Committee constituted under the Rules published with the Govt. of Assam Notification No.301- LSG. dated 8th May, 1931, shall be deemed to have been established under the provision of this Act.

Like the North Cachar Hills District Council, Karbi Anglong District Council also enacted The Mikir Hills District (Administration Of Town Committee ) Act , 1954 and framed thereunder by enacting The Mikir Hills District (Constitution Of Town Committee s ) Rules , 1958. Provisions of The Mikir Hills District (Administration Of Town Committee s ) Act , 1954 are more or less the same as described in the preceding paragraphs under The North Cachar Hills District (Administration Of Town Committee s ) Act , 1956 .

In exercise of the powers conferred under Section 4 of The Mikir Hills District (Administration Of Town Committee ) Act , 1954 , a Town Committee consisting of 5 members for a term of 3 years with effect from 24 th April, 1961 was appointed by the Executive Committee for Diphu Town, Secretary to the District Council being the Ex-officio Chairman of it.

1. Assam Govt. Notification No. 30/- LSG 8th May , 1931

(b) MUNICIPAL CORPORATION :

Organisation and structures, powers and duties, financial resources, special achievements etc. : Haflong Town Committee : The Haflong Town Committee functioning since 1931 came under the purview of the North Cachar Hills District Council with effect from 1.4.1953 2 and is now governed by The North Cachar Hills District (Administration Of Town Committee ) Act , 1956 and rules framed thereunder. It consists of five members including President and Vice President appointed by the Executive Committee of North Cachar Hills District Council. The Town Committee is empowered to impose within its area tax on holdings, water tax and latrine tax. It may also charge rents, tolls and fees on goods for sale in markets under its control and for the use of shops, stalls, and standings therein.

Receipts of Town Committee may be broadly divided into (1) income from its own resources and (2) grants and contributions from the District Council abd State Government. Income from its own resources mainly comprises collection from taxes the Town Committee has imposed. These are holding tax, latrine tax, water tax, rent on shop sites, taxes on animals etc. Other items of receipts are licence fees, sale proceeds etc. Revenue from Committee 's resources is showing an upward trend and has increased from Rs.20,905/- in 1951 to Rs.49,629/- in 1960 -61 and to Rs. 76,497/- in 1964-65. The increase is almost four times within a span of 14 years. The holding , latrine and water taxes almost contribute three-fourths of the receipts of the Town Committee 's own resources.

Grants and contributions from the District Council and State Government are also important sources of income to the Haflong Town Committee to supplement revenue to meet the increasing rate of expenditure. Though there has not been any uniform pattern in giving grants by the State Government and the North Cachar Hills District Council, the grants from the above mentioned sources have been liberal during all these years. The Town Committee is also receiving a grant, amounting to Rs.360/- from the Red Cross. Besides, the North Cachar Hills District Council has also been given a loan of Rs.3,000/- in 1957-58 and 1958-59 respectively. The following table shows the receipts of the Town Committee . :-

The expenditure of the Town Committee is rapidly on increase though with fluctuations. It has increased from Rs.49,464/- in 1951-52 to 1,06,219/- in 1960-61 and to Rs.1,21,115/- in 1954-65. It reached the highest figure of Rs.1,40,882/- in 1959-60. The expenditure may be categorised into five heads of General Administration , Public Safety, Public Health and Sanitation, Public Works and Miscellaneous. The expenditure under the General Administration was more than twice in 1964-65 from that of 1951-52.

The expenditure under the head Public Safety, comprises expenditure on street lightening, police, fire establishments, buckets ,etc. Expenditure under this head is showing an upward trend and the street lighting forms the major part of it. Public Health and Sanitation accounts for almost half of the total expenditure of the Haflong Town Committee. From Rs.29,915/- in 1951-52 , it has increased to Rs.63,888/- in 1964-65. Important sub-heads under this head are water supply, conservancy and road clearing etc. The expenditure under the order two heads of Public Works and Miscellaneous are also on increase. The following table shows the expenditure of the Haflong Town Committee.

The Town Committee has a water supply arrangement of its own to supply the filtered water to the Town and the cost incurred on the project was about a lakh rupees. The water supply from the existing water works being insufficient to meet the growing requirements, another water supply scheme with an estimated cost of Rs. 5 lakhs was executed by the Government of Assam. The other activities of the Town Committee are conservancy works like latrine, clearing of roads and drains, sweeping etc. The town beautification scheme is also in progress. About a lakh of rupees is already spent to improve the roads in the town and other schemes such as improvement of lakes, parking arrangements ettc., are in progress.

(ii) Diphu Town Committee : The Diphu Town Committee was constituted in 1961 under the Mikir Hills District (Administration Of Town Committee s) Act , 1954 and rules framed thereunder. The Town Committee consisting of 5 members was constituted by the Executive Committee , Karbi Anglong District Council vide Notification No. 3451 dated 24th April, 1961 under Section 4 of The Mikir Hills District (Administration Of Town Committee s) Act , 1954. The Secretary to the Karbi Anglong District Council is the ex-officio Chairman of the Town Committee.

The Town Committee has not yet taken up any municipal activities street lighting and clearing of jungles in the town. Public Health Department , Govt. Of Assam, has taken a water supply scheme for the Diphu town. The work is in progress. The Town Committee has levied holding tax in the Town at the rate of Rs 20/- quarterly for each pucca house and Rs.10/- for each kuchha House. A statement of income and expenditure of the Town Committee is as follows :-

Heads Items

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

I Taxes

N Holding Tax

C Miscellaneous

 

3,912.32

-

 

10,575.00

-

 

10,260.00

-

 

18,815.50

60.00

O Grants from District

M Council

E Grants from State Government.

 

2,830.00

 

-

 

3,000.00

 

-

 

1,000.00

 

1,500.00

 

3,000.00-

 

-

Grand Total

6,742.86

13,575.00

12,760.53

21,875.50


Heads Items

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

E General Administra-

X T tion and Establish-

P U ment etc.

E R

N E Miscellaneous

D S.

I

Light

2,616.65

 

-

 

1,514.35

 

 

1,692.00

4,172.34

 

197.54

 

-

 

 

3,214.50

8,154.00

 

1 48.25

 

-

 

 

3,884.00

13,807.90

 

363.75

 

-

 

 

3,941

Grand Total

5,823.00

7,584.34

12,186.25

18,113.40

2. Govt. letter No. TAD/LF/19/50/29 dated 23.6.1953

(c) DISTRICT AND LOCAL BOARDS :

Organisation and structure, powers and duties, financial resources, special achievments, if any.

No District or Local Board exists in the United Mikir and North Cachar Hills. The District is composed of two autonomous districts, i.e., (1) autonomous District of Karbi Anglong and (2) autonomous District of North Cachar Hills. There is a separate District Council functioning in each of these autonomous Districts independent of each other. The District Council of an autonomous District should not be confused with District or Local Boards or Mahkuma Parishads functioning in the plain districts of Assam. Unlike District or Local Boards or Mahkuma Parishads which are the creation of the State Government, the District Council of an autonomous district derives its existence from the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India.

District Councils :

The Administrative of the autonomous District is vested in the District Council and it has power to make laws in respect of the allotment , occupation or use or setting apart a land for the purposes of the agriculture or grazing or for residential or other nono-agricultural or for any purposes likely to promote the interests of the inhabitants of any village or town, the management of any forest (Unclassed State Forests), the use of canal or water course for purposes of agriculture, the regulation of the practice of the jhum cultivation or other forms of cultivation , the establishment of village or town police and public health and sanitation, the appointment or succession of chiefs or headman, inhertance of property , marriage and social customs . All laws made by the District Council shall be submitted forthwith to the Governor and until assented to by him shall have no effect.

The District Council may constitute village councils or courts for the trial of suits and cases between the partiees belonging to Scheduled tribes within their respective areas. They may also appoint suitable persons to be members of village councils or presiding officers of these courts. They may appoint Officers necessary for the administration of the laws. The District Council shall exercise the powers of court of appeal in respect of suits and cases triable by a village council or court . No other court except the High Court and Supreme Court shall jurisdiction over such suits or cases. The Gauhati High Court shall have and execise such jurisdiction over the suits and cases as the Governor may from time to time by orderly specify. The District Council may, with the previous approval of the Governor of Assam, make rules regulating the constitution of village council or courts and the powers to be exercised by them , the procedure to be followed by the village councils or courts in the trial of suits and cases , the procedure to be followed the District Council or any court constituted by such Councils in appeals and other proceedings , the enforcement of decision and order of such councils and courts and all other ancillary matters.

The Governor may for trial of suits or cases arising out of any law in force in any autonomous district or region , being laws specified in that behalf by the Governor, or for the trial of offences punishable with death, transportation for life or imprisonment or for a term of not less than 5 years under the Indian Penal Code or under any other law applicable in that area, confer on the District Council concerned or on courts constituted by the District Council or any other Officer appointed for that purpose by the Governor, such powers under the Code of Civil Procedure and Criminal Procedure and modify any of the powers given above. The nonly the said council or the court can apply these Codes. In other cases , the Code of Civil Procedure and Code of Criminal Procedure shall not apply.

The District Council may establish, construct , or manage primary schools, dispensaries , markets, cattle pounds, ferries, fisheries, roads and water ways in the autonomous district and may prescribe the language and the manner in which the primary education shall be imparted in the primary schools in the autonomous district.

The District Council shall have the power to assess and collect revenue in respect of lands in their respective areas. In addition to the power of levying and collecting taxes on lands and buildings and tolls on persons residing within such areas , it shall have power to levy and collect taxes on professions, trades , callings and emploments, taxes on animals, vehicles and boats, taxes on entry of goods into market for sales and tolls on passengers and goods carried in ferries and taxes for the maintenance of schools, dispensaries or roads. It may also make regulations for the regulation and control of moneylending or trading within the district.

By a notification , the Governor may direct that any Act of Parliament or that of State Legislature , shall not apply to the autonomous district or shall apply to such district or any part thereof subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in the notification. The Governor may at any time appoint a Commission to examine report on any matter specified by him relating to the administratioin of autonomous district in the State. If at any time, the Governor is satisfied that an Act or resolution of the district council is likely to endanger the safety of India, he may annul or suspend such Act or resolution. He may take such steps, he may consider necessary to prevent the commission or continuance of such Act or giving effect to such resolution. Any order made by the Governor shall be laid before the legislature of the State as soon as possible and the order shall, unless revoked earlier by the legislature, continue to be in force for a period of 12 months from the date on which it was so made.

On the recommendation of the Commission, the Governor may order the dissolution of a District Council and direct that a fresh election shall be held for the reconstitution of the Council. With the approval of the State Legislature , he may assume the administration of the area himself or put the same under a Commission or any other body considered suitable by him.

The Governor shall make rules for the first constitution of the District Council s in consultation with the existing Tribal Councils or other representatives of tribal organisations within the autonomous district. These rules shall provide for the consumption of the District Council and the allocations of seats therein and the delimitation of territorial constituencies for purposes of elections to those Councils, the qualifications for voting at such elections and the preparations of electoral rolls, qualifications for being elected at such elections, the term of Office of the Members of the Councils, the procedure and conduct of business in the District Council and the appointment of officers and staff of the district.

In exercise of the powers conferred by the above paragraph, (Sub para6 of para 2 of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India ) and the rules framed thereunder by the Governor of Assam (The Assam autonomous Districts Constitution Of District Council Rules, 1951 ), the two District Council s consisting of 16 members each for Karbi Anglong and North Cachar Hills autonomous Districts were constituted in 1951 and 1952 respectively. Out of these, 12 members were elected by the adult franchise and 4 were nominated by the Governor . The term of the District Council shall be for 5 years from the date of ite first meeting unless dissolved earlier. The said period may be extended by the Governor , ny notification in the Gazette for a period not exceeding one year at a time. The District Council shall be summoned to meet four times a year. In the event of emergency, with the previous approval of the Governor or no receipt of a requisition signed by not less than 2/3 members of the Council, the Chairman shall summon a special meeting of District Council.

To preside over the meeting of the District Council and to perform such other functions akin to the State-Legislature, there are the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman to each District Council. They are directly elected by the members of the respective District Council s and continue to function till they enjoy the confidence of the house(District Council).

The District Council for an autonomous District in respect of all areas within the district have power to make or amend laws, regulations and rules in respect of matters falling within the purview of the District Council as specified in the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution Of India. All such proposals to make or amend laws, regulations and rules are to be introduced in the District Council in forms of Bills. Bills introduced on behalf of the Executive Committee are termed as 'Official Bills' and by the members of the District Council in their individual rights are 'Private Members' Bill. No Bill shall be introduced in the District Council without the prior approval of the Governor . Copies of all Official and Private Member's Bills shall be sent to the Governor through the Deputy Commissioner sufficiently in advance , for publication in the Gazette and no Bill shall be published in the Gazette until the permission of the Governor to such publication has been obtained. To become law, a Bill has to pass all the three stages of readings ordinarily prescribed for the law. When a Bill has been passed by the District Council and authenticated by the Chairman, the Secretary to the District Council shall send the authenticated copy of the Bill to the Deputy Commissioner for submission to the Governor for his assent. The Governor may assent to the Bill or may return the Bill to the District Council for reconsideration.

The point or points referred to for reconsideration or amendments recommended , shall be put before the District Council and a copy thereof signed by the Chairman shall be submitted to the Governor for his assent. After receiving the assent of the Governor, it shall be published in the Gazette and so such publication shall have the force of law.

To exercise the executive functions of the District Council there is an Executive Committee for each District Council. The Executive Committee shall consist of three members with Chief Executive Member at the head. The Chief Executive Member is elected by the District Council and two Executive Members, amongst the Members of the District Council are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Executive Member. The Executive Committee shall be collectively responsible to the District Council and may be removed on a vote of no-confidence passed by a majority of the members of the District Council at ameeting specially convened for the purpose. In case the Executive Committee resigns or is removed on a vote of no-confidence motion and if the District Council fails to elect new Chief Executive Member within specified time of 48 hours, the Governor shall appoint any member of the Council to be the Chief Executive Member. The Executive Committee so constituted shall continue to function until it is replaced by an Executive Committee constituted in the manner as mentioned earlier.3

3. Assam Autonomous Districts (Constitution of District Councils Rules ), 1951 , pp. 2-26

Karbi Anglong District Council :

It was formerly known as Mikir Hills District Council : It came into being on 23rd June, 1952. It has jurisdiction over an area of 10,332 square kilometres with a population of 2,25,407 according to the Census of 1961. It consists of 16 members out of which a 12 are elected by the adult franchise and rest are nominated by the Governor. Since the formation of this autonomous District, thee District Council Elections were held in 1952 , 1957 and 1962 and there were four bye-elections, two during the first term, one during the second term, and one in the third term of the District Council.

There is only one political party in this autonomous District, namely Congress but there is another organisation of the tribal people living in the District known as Karbi-Darbar. This organisation was established during the year 1945. It is a socio-political organisation with the aims and objects to bring out the all round development of the tribal people of this autonomous District.

The party position after each term of election is given below :

Term

Year

Party position after each election

Total

 

 

Congress

or

Karbi-Darbar

Independent

 

1

2

3

4

5

First Term

After 19657General Elections

Elected

Nominated

 

After 1st Bye-elections

Elected

Nominated

 

After 2nd Bye-elections

Nominated

Elected

 

10

4

 

 

10

4

 

 

4

10

 

2

-

 

 

2

-

 

 

-

2

 

 

16

 

 

 

16

 

 

 

16

2nd Term

After 19657General Elections

Elected

Nominated

 

After 1st Bye-elections

Elected

Nominated

 

11

4

 

 

11

4

 

1

-

 

 

1

-

 

 

16

 

 

 

16

3rd Term-

After 1962 General Elections

Elected

Nominated

 

After 1st Bye-elections

Elected

Nominated

 

12

4

 

 

11

4

 

-

-

 

 

1

-

 

 

16

 

 

 

16

Administrative Set-up :

The District Council has divided its office administration into several branches , viz., Land Revenue , Forest, Taxes, General Administration, Education and Public Works.

Land Revenue Branch : This Branch is responsible for assessment of land revenue , local rate, house tax etc., and collection of the same Allotment of land for various purposes and settlement of lands with individuals are done by this branch in accordance with the Council's land distribution policy. Over and above , there regular revenue works, assessment and collection of grazing tax and collection of revenue thereof is also a resposibility of this branch.

The Circle System of Land Revenue Administration was brought into force in this district from the year Land Revenue Administration was transferred to Karbi Anglong District Council . At present , there are three revenue circles namely Diphu, Phuloni and Donka divided into twenty mauzas. The Mauzadar is responsible for collection of land revenue and house tax within his mauza. He is assised by Sarkari Gaonbura.

Ther is a Land Settlement Advisory Board to advice the council on matters relating to setttlement of land. The Secretary of the District Council is also the Revenue Officer.

Forest Branch : This branch looks after the management of forests within this autonomous district. All matters relating to assessment and collection of royalties on various forest produces, afforestations and regeneration are looked after by this branch.

Tax Branch : This branch is resposible for issue of licences, registration of carts , boats , vehicles etc., under provisions of The Mikir Hills (Trading By Non-tribals) Act, 1953 and Mikir Hills District (Carts, Cycles , Boats) Taxation Act,1954 and collection of taxes on trades, fees and tolls levied on licences for trading by non-tribals and on ferrries, cattle pound, fisheries etc. Collection including enquiries into matters relating to licences ets., are made through officers, designated as Bazar supervisors. Other revnenues such as Council's share of royalties on minor minerals, elephant mahals and motor vehicles etc., are collected by this Branch, through the State Tribal Areas and Welfare of Backward Classes Department from the Departments concerned.

General Administration : Execution of policy laid down by the District Council from time to time is the main duty of this branch. The Legislative side of the District Council is also merged in the General Administration.

On the Executve side besides exercising the general supervision over all the branches under the District Council, it is resposible for (1) dealing with policy matters of District Council, (2) holding of Executive Committee meetings, (3) preparation of budget, (4) all financial matters including sanction of various works and schemes , (5) settlement of contracts, (6) general administration , (7) supply and maintenance of stores, (8) maintenance of accounts and cash , (9) correspondences with Govt. and other offices etc.

On the legislative side it deals in all matters relating to (1) District Council Sessions, (2) drafting of bills, resolutions, motions etc. The branch is directly under the control of the Secretary of the District Council.

Education Branch : Education at the primary level within the autonomous district is under the control and management of the District Council. The Council has 98 Lower Primary Schools of its own which it manages from it sown fund and is shouldering the responsibility of management and control of 184 Govt. L.P.Schools and 30 Basic L.P.Schools transferred from Govt. with effect from 1.8.61.

The Education Branch of the District Council has one Education Officer with five Assistant Sub-Inspectors of Schools under him to supervise the working and teaching in the Schools. This branch deals in all matters relating to education , general administration of staff and teachers under it with the Education Officer at its head.

The Education Officer implements the policies framed by the Primary Education Board with the Executive Member in-charge of Education as its Chairman and the Deputy Inspector of Schools as its Secretary.

Works Branch : The Works Branch under the charge of an Assistant Engineer supervises the execution of all works , both original and repair, i.e., works relating to rural communication, rural water supply, self help schemes , construction, repairs and maintenance of Council Offices and buildings and maintenance of Council's vehicles etc.

Ther are five Overseers under the Assistant Engineer, each with the jurisdiction over specific areas spread over the entire autonomous district. There are Sub-Overseers and Mohoris under the Overseers for better execution and supervision of works.

The Secretary of the District Council is in over all charge of all these branches mentioned above. He is the Secretary to the Executive Committee as wll as the Secretary for Legislative side as this District Council has no separate Secretary for Legislative wing. Beside general supervision , he implements the decision of the Executive Committee and the Coucil and on the financial sides, he exercises all control over the District Fund as empowered by the Fund Rules. It is the duty and responsibility of this Officer to keep the Executive Committee informed of such matters which in his opinion , the Executive Committee should be informed, and to obtain the Executive Committee 's orders on policy matters and on such other matters as he considers necessary.

Executive Committee :

According to Rule 28 and 29 of the Assam autonomous District (Constitution Oc District Council ) Rules 1951, all the executive functions of the District Council are vested in the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee in case of Karbi Anglong is composed of the Chief Executive Member at the head and two other Executive Members. The subjects falling under the purview of the District Council are alloted to the thre members of the Executive Committee.

The Mikir Hills District (Salaries And Allowances Of The Executive Members) Act, 1958 as amended from time to time provide for salaries and allowances of the Executive Members. The Chief Executive Member and Executive Member used to draw salaries of Rs. 500/- and Rs.350/- monthly respectively which has been raised to Rs.600/- and Rs.400/- per month respectively with effect from 1- 4-64 vide the Mikir Hills District (Salaries And Allowances Of The Executive Members) First Amendment Act, 1963 and the Mikir Hills District (Salaries And Allowances Of The Executive Members Second Amendment ) Act, 1963 respectively. The Executive Members are provided with free furnished residences with grounds and apartments there to be maintained at District Council 's expenses at Diphu free of all rents, assessments , taxes or cesses due to District Council or to any other local bodies and are entitled to travelling and halting allowances as are admissible as are admissible to class I Officers of the State Govt. Member of District Council gets a monthly pay of Rs.200/- and a daily allowance at the rate of Rs.10.50 paise for the number of days they attend the Session of the District Council plus two days extra.

The Secretary and Assistant Revenue Officers are all Officers of Assam Govt. from Assam Civil Service whose services have been placed at the disposal of the Council on deputation. Some of the Senior Office Assistants, Overseers, Land Record Staff and Assistant Sub-Inspector of Schools etc., are also on deputation from Govt. services. Other Employees in the cadre are appointed against vacancies generally by advertisement.

Subject to suitability in all respects, preferences are , however given to local tribal candidates. The District Council has not found any rule regualting the conditions of services of its employees. It is following the relevant Government of Assam Rules as provided in Rule 15 of the Assam autonomous Districts (Constitution of District Council ) Rules 1951.

ACTIVITIES OF THE DISTRICT COUNCIL :

Legislative : The Council has enacted a number of Acts, Rules and Regulations since ite inception in accordance with the provisions of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India. The list of the same has been given in Ch. X

The Council has not levied tolls on persons residinf in the District or on goods and passengers carried on ferries nor taxes for maintenance of schools, dispensaries and roads. The District Council has also not levied fees for the administration of laws regarding allotment of land , distribution of jhumland, the use of canals or water courses for the purpose of agriculture or for the administration of inheritence of property, amrriage and social customs.

Though the District Council has enacted the Mikir Hills autonomous District (Administration Of Justice ) Rules 1954, the Council has not taken over the administrative of Justice.

To protect and promote the interests of the inhabitants of this District as well as to protect the tribal people, against alienation of their land, the Mikir Hills (Transfer Of Land) Regulation 1959 was introduced to put restriction on the transfer by safe , mortgage, lease, barter ,gift or otherwise of land by a tribal to a non-tribal or by a non-tribal to another non-tribal. No such transfer can be effectedwithout the previous permission of the Executive Committee. This piece of protective law has not been effective as there is no legal bar on transfer of right of possession through mutual consent which resulted in spreading of non-tribal refugee habitation throughout the district.

The Mikir Hills (Money-lending By Non-Tribals) Regulation, 1953 was introduced for regulating the system of money-lending in this autonomous District and to safeguard the tribal people from unscrupulous and usurious money-lenders. Among other legislations introduced to safeguard the tribal interests, Mikir Hills District (Trading By Non-Tribals) Regulation, 1953 and the Mikir Hills District (Jhuming) Regulation, 1953 are important . The first one provides for regulation and control of tradinf non-tribals in the autonomous District and the latter to control , minimise and substitutes the practice of shifting cultivation prevalent amongst the tribal people and thereby to improve the economic conditions of the tribals.

By introducing the Mikir Hills (Land And Revenue ) Act, 1953, the District Council had adopted the Assam Land and Revenue Regulation, 1886 with subsequent Amendments for the sake of uniformity of Rules and procedure prevailing in other districts of the State of Assam and for providing for recognition of rights over land etc. With a view to protect soil and crop by regulating grazing of cattle , the District Council has also adopted all laws in force in the State of Assam in respect of regulation of grazing in this autonomous District.

The District Council has set up a town Committee under the Mikir Hills District (Administration Of The Town Committee ) Act, 1954 , in the fast growing headquarters of Diphu Town. The Town Committee is functioning since 1961 with the District Council Revenue Officer (Secretary of the District Council ) as its Chairman.

Apart from the above Acts and regulations, the District Council by Resolutions from time to time in Council-in-session adopted certain policies mainly in the matters of settlement of lands, grazing etc., within the perview of the relevant rules.

Education : The spread of education among the people of this backward district, is an essential pre-requisite to their all round development since its inception, the Council has paid devoted attention for the expansion of education .During the very year of its inception inspite of its mearge fund position, the District Council established 21 Primary Schools mostly in the interior areas of Karbi Anglong. Apart from establishing these schools, the District Council has to spend annually a sum of Rs.22,000/- in maintaining these schools. During 1953-54 and 1954-55, twelve and eighteen more Primary Schools respectively were established by the council. For proper and effective supervision of the District Council Schools, one Sub-Inspector of Schools and one Assistant Sub-Inspector of Schools were appointed. In 1955-56, twenty three more Primary Schools were added to the existing Schools and another Assistant Sub-Inspector of Schools was appointed raising the number of Inspecting staff to 3. During the next years 15 more Primary Schools were established, bringing the total number of District Council Schools to 89 at the end of 1958-59 and in the year of 1959-60, the number of District Council Schools rose to 97.

During the year of 1961-62, the responsibility and management of 214 Govt. Primary Schools including Basic Schools was transferred to the District Council as a result of an agreement between the State Govt. and the District Council. Services of the two Govt. Assistant Sub-Inspector of Schools were also placed at the disposal of the Council on deputation under this agreement . A Board of Primary Education was set up with 9 members with the Executive Member in-charge of Education Porfolio as its Chairman and the Deputy Inspector of Schools , Diphu , as its ex-officio Secretary of the Board. The District Council controls and manages Primary Education through the agency of this Board.

In 1962-63, the District Council took up 107 numbers of new venture schools from the Govt. grant made available to the District Council under Third Five Year Plan . This District Council took up another 28 new Primary Schools during 1963-6 out of the Govt. grant under the Third Five Year Plan and established one more sschool of its own. This brought the total nos. of Primary Schools under the District Council to 447 (i.e. transferred schools 214, Council's own schools 98+107 Venture Primary Schools during 1962-63 plus 28 Primary Schools during 1963-64). There were 689 teachers and 21,457 pupils in total in the above schools.

20 new venture schools were taken up during 1964-65 which brought the total number of schools to 467. A new Assistant Sub-Inspector of Schools was appointed by the District Council in the same year. Present strength of Inspecting Officer is 6(six) out of which 4 (four) are entertained from the District Council 's own fund and the remaining by the District Council has been redesignated as Education Officer since 1964.

The management of Middle and High Schools is outside the purview of the District Council . But to provide incentive to such schools growing up in different localities of Karbi Anglong, the District Council has always made provisions for funds for giving aids to them. With the initiative of the District Council and co-operation of the people of this autonomous District the only Girls High Schools at Diphu was set up in 1967 with financial assistance from the Council.

Feeling the acute needs of the facility for higher education with the initiative of the District Council ,the people of this Autonomous District has also decided to start a college at Diphu from the academic year 1964. Apart from giving financial assistance , the District Council has provided to the college with the requisite land in the interest of promotion of higher education in this autonomous District.

The District Council has not overlooked the necessity of providing for grants incentive to the various cultural organisations aiming at development of tribal culture including folk songs, dances etc. It has also taken steps to publish monographs of different tribes living in this autonomous District and text in Karbi language for imparting education to the children of this District through their mother tongue at primary level. The Council awards scholarships to meritorious students from its own fund and from 1965-66 has made provisions for scholarships for the prosecutions of technical education.

Development Works : Since its inception , the District Council has placed emphasis on the maintenance and improvement of the already existing roads, construction of village paths, bridges, feeder roads , culverts etc., for increased mobility within the isolated and inaccessible areas ; on providing public wells for drinking water and implementing village water schemes. These works have been undertaken from the Council's own fund as well as with the help of Govt. grants under rural communication, rural water supply, self help grant, self help enterprise grant, local development works schemes and grants - in -aid to District Council for financing their own plans , such as for beautification schemes., expansion of primary education, forest regeneration etc.

In respect of rural communication and rural water supply , the following works done by the District Council apart from repair and maintenance works.

Year

Rural communication

Rural water supply

 

Length of

No. of new roads constructed

(in miles)

 

No. of timber

bridges

constructed

No. of

Pucca

Culvert

constructed

Amount Spent

(in Rs. )

No. of

ring wells, reseoirs and

tubewells

constructed

Amount Spent

(in Rs. )

1953-54

1954-55

1955-56

1956-57

1957-58

1958-59

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

89.38

111.86

136.72

22.66

7.06

39.60

-

51.00

88.50

7.50

44.00

1

4

5

14

9

5

7

11

5

8

13

9

11

14

27

8

10

33

24

7

3

1

58,934/-

1,22,698/-

1,23,300/-

68,392/-

33,840/-

69,555/-

60,026/-

1,10,626/-

1,03,239/-

26,808/-

85,456/-

9

40

60

31

24

24

23

22

76

46

35

18,219/-

75,547/-

1,21,021/-

55,022/-

57,824/-

8,773/-

39,900/-

57,576/-

90,137/-

73,357/-

56,200/-

It may recalled that since remote past it has been the customary practice of the Karbi people to form small and scattered villages and to practice shifting cutivation on hill slopes and in remote forests. With a few execeptions, they do not form permanent villages. Nine or ten families or even less constitute a village which is again shifted to another place within a few years time. The Council has already noted the great need for reorganising the villages and establishment of permanent villages which is a matter of prime importance in the planning and development and welfare programme for the people . It may be mentioned in this connection that average population per village in Karbi Anglong is only roughly 86 and is probably the lowest in comparison to other autonomous districts. Accordingly, the Council drew up programme to reorganise the villages during 1956. The scheme was to regroup scattered villages into villages consisting at least of 50 or more house-holds for providing facilities such as communication, education, water supply and permanent cultivation. The area of operation of this scheme was divided into four circles and the scheme was initially executed through honorary field Officers designated as Development Officers. Even inspite of natural aversion of the people to quit their home-steads and to change life-time habits, the scheme worked successfully and till the end of 1962-63, 206 villages in 12 mauzas were recognised . No work thereafter was done on the scheme due to paucity of funds but the Council has again decided to proceed with the remaining work from 1965 and has provided a sum of Rs.50,000/- from its own resources in this years budget (1965-66). The reorganisation scheme has been executed in full.

One of the most important sources of revenue of this District Council is forests. There is no denial of the fact that the forest wealth of the Council has been gradually decreasing due to extraction by Council ans mainly because of the jhuming. To compensate this loss, the Council has already taken up reservation work with right-earnest. The District Council proposed to have reserved forests at 6 (six) places :- (1) Patradisha 18,400 acres, (2) Matipung 7,680 acres (3) Langting 12,592 acres, (4) Langfer 10,830 acres, (5) Langcholiot 9,600 acres, (6) Laharijan 7,680 acres. Besides handing over nearly 500 acres of land to the State Govt's. Soil Conservation Deptt. for affforestation work, the District Council itself has also undertaken regeneration and afforestation work at the following places :-

Name of Place

Area under regeneration works

 

 

1963-64

1964-65

1965-66

A. Regeneration

works.

1. Matipung

2. Silbheta

3. Patradisha

    1. Acres
      3.6 acres

15 acres

20 acres

25 acres

20 acres

15 acres

25 acres.

B. Afforestation

works

1. Bagori

2. Laharijan

3. Langcholiot

4. Kheroni

5. Ouguri

6. Tikak

 

 

30 acres

60 ,,

30 ,,

30 ,,

30 ,,

30 ,,

The Council has already constructed some good buildings for its office, Council's office and for accommodation of Members, Executive Members at Diphu apart from circle and forest offices at outlying areas. The Council has also constructed some residential quarters for its employees.

Besides the works mentioned above, the Council has constructed several libraries and clubs in rural areas. It has constructed many schools buildings and has also improved a number of important bazars in the out-lying areas.

The District Council Council further constructed a ten-bedded ward at Diphu and at Boithalangso which were subsequently taken over by Govt.

The District Council has already completed theodolite survey of seven mauzas of the District and taken up detailed survey of some mauzas for proper classification of land and assessment of Land Revenue.

Receipts and Expenditure of the Karbi Anglong District Council :

Chapter 8 of the Assam autonomous Districts (Constitution of District Council ) Rules 1951 , provides for the procedure to be followed in the matter of preparation of Annual Financial Statement of the Council ; its presentetion to and discussion in the Council and voting of demands for grants. Each year in March, the budget is presented to and discussed in the Council. At the end of each session, a schedule specifying the grants made by th Council is placed in the Council and expenditure is incurred accordingly. The Karbi Anglong District Council, soon after its inception passed a set of rules (The Mikir Hills District Fund Rules ). The Funds of the Council are kept in the treasury under a personal ledger-account in the name of the Council. The Executive Member in-charge of the Finance Portfolio has the power to sanction expenditure up to the limit of Rs. one thousand. The Secretary of the District Council who is the drawing officer of the District Council draws money by means of cheque from the District Council Fund held in the Diphu Treasury. The accounts of the Council are subject to audit by the Account General, Assam and Nagaland etc., Shillong.

The District Council 's Fund comprises receipts of revenue from Council's own resources and grants-in-aid etc., received from Govt. year to year. The funds relating to Govt. grants are utilized against the specified scheme approved by Govt. and Fund accumulated from revenue receipts of the Council is utilized in normal administration of the District Council for maintenance of administrative staff including payment of salary, T.A. etc. of the Members of the Council and the surplus from this fund is utilized in developmental works including maintenance etc., of the existing works. The total receipts of the District Council of Karbi Anglong during 1964-65, was Rs. 13,22,272/- of which Rs. 11,19,052/- was from the Council's own resources and Rs. 2,03,220/- was grants from the Govt. The total expenditure incurred during the same year was Rs. 20,93,733/- of which an amount of Rs. 10,03,719/- was incurred on establishment and administration and the rest amount of Rs. 10,90,014/- was on development works.

Receipts : As stated in the preceeding paragraph, the receipts of the Council may broadly be categorised into two heads i.e., revenue from Council's own sources and grants-in-aid from the Govt. There are almost been six fold increase in the receipts of the revenue from the District Council 's own resources during the last 11 years. From a meagre sum of Rs. 1,85,251/- in 1953-54, it rose to a figure of Rs. 3,12,695/- in 1955-56 and to Rs. 7,50,692/- in 1960-61. It further rose to a high figure of Rs. 11,19,052/- in 1964-65. The receipts of the Council come from land revenue , house tax and local rate ; taxes on professions, trades and callings ; taxes on animals ; taxes on vehicles and boats ;taxes on entry of goods into the markets and sales therein ; royalty on timber from Unclassed State Forests and fees and tolls levied on licences from trading by non-tribals and on ferries, cattle pound and fisheries. The Council is also entitled to 60 % of the net royalty on elephant hunting, minerals, and minor minerals. Taxes on motor vehicles both under the Act of 1936 and 1939, are collected by the State Govt. and remits the amount , to the Council's Fund after deducting the cost of services rendered. Similar procedure is adopted in case of professioned tax also.

Land Revenue , House Tax and Local Rate : The receipts from the land revenue ,house tax and local rate comes about more than 20 % of the total receipt of the District Council 's own resources. The land in village which are not yet surveyed are assessed to flat rate of 0.56 paise per bigha but in cadastrally surveyed villages, the rates varies from 0.31 paise to Rs. 2.75 paise per bigha according to the classification of land. The hill portion where the shifting cultivation is practised , a sum of Rs. 3/- per annum per house for villages with more than 50 houses and Rs. 6/- per house for villages with less than 50 houses is realised irrespective of the area under cultivation. The enhanced rate is to discourage the customary practice of the tribal people to form small and scattered villages. The local rate which was until recently 0.08 paise per rupee of land revenue had been raised to 0.25 paise per rupee of land revenue with effect from 1.4.64 and is collected along with land revenue.

The current demand from land revenue is progressively on increase and has almost increased three fold during the last 13 years. From Rs.1,32,742/- in 1953-54, it has increased to Rs.1,79,367/- in 1955-56 and to Rs.2,75,549/- in 1960-61. It has further progressed to a figure of Rs.3,50,707/- in 1964- 65. The demand is likely to rise further in the coming years with the levy of enhanced rates of revenue assessment effective from 1.4.66. This progressive increase in current demand is not accompanied by the progressive increase in collection. Every year a huge amount is left as arrear, though a slight improvement in realisation of the arrears is noticeable in recent years. The cumulative arrear has increased from Rs.1,18,504/- in 1953-54 to Rs.11,00,242/- in 1964-65.

The reasons assigned to the huge arrears are said to be the poor economic condition of the people, occasional failure of the crops in the hilly areas due to drought and absence of any scope for pursuing coercive measures on assessees having no valuable property. As most of the lands in the district are of annual patta, the land can not be attched for sale to realise the revenue. This being a newly constituted district, some concessions had to be given at the initial stage in the form of not insisting upon furnishing of security against revenue demand from Mauzadars and thus some of them seem to be taking advantage of the same by keeping collection in hand. Now reasonable money or property securities are being demanded from Mauzadars before allowing them to start collection . The following table shows the demand, collection, arrear and remission of land revenue, house tax and local rate of Karbi District Council since 1953-54. (in rupees).

Royalty on timbers from the Unclassed State Forests : Royalty on timber from the Unclassed State Forests is the most important source of income to the District Council. In 1964-65, the revenue from this source came to Rs.8,31,915/-. A stedy increase is maintained since 1955-56. From Rs.1,05,046/- in 1955-56, the revenue from this source increased to Rs.5,02,852/- in 1959-60 but fell to Rs.4,55,854/- in 1960-61 and since then a steady upward trend is maintained. In 1964-65, it amounted to a peak figure of Rs.8,31,915/-. These figures are inclusive of share of royalty on elephants received from the State Govt. from time to time.

Timber operation under the District Council was previously done on permit system . To prevent merciless and uneconomic exploitation , the Council has now switched on to the coupe system. The Council formed 41 coupes during 1965-66 of which 36 were sold at a total revenue of Rs.1,41,481.83 paise. The coupes are sold by auction for one year. The Council is concentrating on formation of more coupes systematically well-distributed throughout the Karbi Anglong. There are two leases ; Sonapahar lease about 25 sq. miles and Dyungmukh leases are for 3 years. Other forest products are sold on mahal basis . The following table shows the demand , collection and arrear of royalty on timber :-

Year

Demand

Rs

Collection

Rs

Cumulative Arrear

Rs

1955-56

1956-57

1957-58

1958-59

1959-60

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

1,34,792

3,00,565

5,45,747

6,42,324

5,07,240

4,54,842

6,05,000

6,57,000

6,80,000

7,58,000

1,05,046

2,29,215

3,47,059

4,59,275

5,02,852

4,55,854

6,08,379

6,11,399

8,87,683

8,31,915

29,746

71,350

1,98,688

1,83,049

20,401

9,778

10,578

11,199

13,701

12,482