CHAPTER - XIII
Public Works Depatment :-
The Public Works Depatment functions at the State-level in two branches, Public Works Depatment, Roads and Buildings and Public Works Depatment, Embankment and Drainage. Each Branch is under the control of a Chief Engineer and is divided into circles and each circle is under the administrative control of the Superintendent Engineer . The circle is again divided into divisions, subdivisions and sections. Divsions are under the control of Sub-Divisional Officers while the sections are named by the Sectional Officers or Overseers.
Roads and Buildings : The Public Works Depatment (Roads & Buildings) which is mainly entrusted with the construction of roads, bridges, has two divisions in the district located at Diphu in the Karbi Anglong and Haflong in the North Cachar Hills. Thehu Division falls under the control of the Superintendent Engineer, Central Assam Circle , and Haflong Division under the Superintendent Engineer, Souther Assam Circle.
The Diphu Division was started in 1955. It then did not cover the entire district. The construction of roads and bridges in the bordering areas of the district contiguous to the Nowgong district was entrusted by the Government , to the Nowgong East and Nowgong West Divisions. There was a separate division at Haflong functioning since 1948, only for the construction of the Shillong- Silchar Road. With the completion of the Shillong-Silchar Road, the division at Haflong was closed in 1953 but was re-opened in the year 1962. This division is now composed of two sub-divsions, Haflong- A and Haflong -B, and its jurisdiction of roads , bridges and buildings. Diphu Division which is also having its control two sub-divisions, Diphu - A and Diphu - B ,now covers the entire Karbi Anglong inclusive of the roads constructed by the Nowgong East & West Divisions , in Karbi Anglong.
The total kilometrage of roads constructed by the above divisions up to the year 1964-65 came to 814.85 out of which 171kms. were black topped, 338 kms. gravelled and 11/2km. water bound and the rest were fair weather roads. These two divisions also constructed a number of buildings for various departments. The buildings constructed at Diphu were (1) Civil Hospital Buildings and Staff Quarters , (2) Civil Surgeon's Residence, Office Buildings and Staff Quarters , (3)Deputy Commissioner's residence, (4) Court and Tresury Buildings, (5) Circuit House , (6) Development Officer and 6 Upper Divisions Assistant's Quarters , (&0 Government High School and Staff Quarters , (8)Technical School, (9) Executive Engineer's Office, (10) Executive Engineer 's Residence, (11) Public Works Department's Staff Quarters and Sub-Divisional Officer's Residence ,(12) Deputy Superintendent of Police 's Residence, (13) Police Staff Quarters , and (14) Veterinary Dispensary Buildings. Construction at other places are, Dispensaries at Kolongo, Howraghat, Dillai and Majadisha , Leper Colony at Maibong, Maternity and Child Welfare Centre at Gunjung, GOvt. High School Buildings at Haflong, Middle English School Buildings at Mohindijua, Teacher's Quarters at Maibong and Police Station at Howraghat.
The investigation and execution of irrigation and flood control schemes, collection of hydrological and rain gauge data and maintenance of the existing projects in the districts are under the control of two divisions of Jorhat and Cachar. Both the divisions have their sub-division s. The Sub- Divisional Officer at Haflong is under the control of the Cachar Division and exercises jurisdiction over the North Cachar Hills . The Sub-Divisional Officer at Diphu is now under the control of the Nowgong Division and exercises jurisdiction over the entire Karbi excluding some schemes undertaken by the divisions of Sibsagar and Nowgong, all the Governement construction work in Karbi is done under the executive control of Sub-Divisional Officer , Diphu . There is also a division established recently for the construction of Bakulia Irrigation Projects. The number of irrigation projects executed or under execution have been described in detail in chapter IV.
Agriculture Department :
At the State level the Director of Agriculture is the head of the Department of Agriculture. For agricultural administration, the State of Assam is divided into three agricultural zones, Viz., Eastern, Western and Southern. Each Zone comprises a few district and the district of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills falls under the Eastern Zone with headquarters at Jorhat. Besides, the Regional Joint Director, who is the head of the zone, there is a Regional Agricultural Engineer looking after the irrigation, reclamation and other agriculture engineering works in the zone, while the district is under the administrative control of the District Agriculture Officer stationed at Diphu. The district is divided into sub-divisions and subdivisions are again divided into blocks according to the number of Community Development Blocks in the sub-divisions. Each sub-division is placed under the charge of a Sub-Divisional Agriculture Officer , while the blocks are manned by the Extension Officers (Agriculture). The villages comprising Community Development Blocks are divided into certain groups and each group is placed under the charge of Gram Sevaks.
The Office of the District Agriculture Officer in the district started functioning at Diphu in 1959. Before that, the agriculture activities in the areas comprising this district were looked after by the respective District Agriculture Officers of the civil districts of which formed part. The District Agriculture Officer , who is the head of the Agriculture Department in the district ; controls , supervises, and inspects all the agriculture works and guides the field staff for the proper implementation of the agriculture schemes by organising periodical training courses. There are two Sub-Divisional Agriculture Officers posted at Diphu in the Karbi Anglong and at Haflong in the North Cachar Hills . These Sub-Divisional Officers are assisted , at the headquarter by the subject-matter specialists who are in the rank of the Inspectors . The main duty of the Sub-Divisional Agriculture Officer is to assist the District Agriculture Officer in the implementation of the agriculture programmes in the respective sub-divisions.
There are nine Community Development Blocks in the district, 7 in the Karbi Anglong and 2 in the North Cachar Hills . In each of these blocks, there is one Agriculture Extension Officer, who is assisted by a number of Gram Sevaks ranging from 5 to 10 depending upon the stage of the Community Development Block. The function of the Agriculture Extension Officer includes the formation and execution of theag programmes in consultation with the Sub-Divisional Agriculture Officer , District Agriculture Officer and Block Development Officer in their respective areas. The Agriculture Extension Officer and Gram Sevaks are the actual field workers and come into direct contact with the people either through some traditional village organisations or individually. They organise and attend meetings and give instructions to the cultivators about scientific methods of cultivation by arranging practical demanstration in the field. Sale or distribution or fertilizers, seeds, agriculture implements,etc., are done through the Gram Savaks. It is they who are expected to be always ready to meet and look after the needs of the cultivatiors in times of distress like drought, flood, pests and diseases, etc.
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Department :
The Director of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary who is the head of this Directorate at State level is assisted by the Joint Directors, Deputy Directors and other specialists. Thw whole of the State is divided into four Zones, each zone being placed under the administrative control of a Joint Deputy Director. The district of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills falls in the hill zone with headquarters at Shillong. At the district level the District Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Officer is the head of this department.
The Office of the District Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Officer was opened at Diphu in 1959. Prior to that the activities of the Department were administered by the District Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Officers at Nowgong , Jorhat and Silchar. The District Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Officer is responsible for all the activities of the department including the control and supervision of the Veterinary Institutions and the proper implementation of the departmental schemes. There is only one Sub-Divisional Officer at Haflong who assists him in supervising and executing the departmental schemes in North Cachar Hills sub-division. Veterinary Dispensaries, Rural Animal Husbandry Centres and Farms and other activities of the department in the blocks are placed under the control of the Veterinary Assistant Surgeons, Farm Managers and Extension Officers (Animal Husbandry and Veterinary ). In each of the Community Development Block, there is one Extension Officer (Animal Husbandry and Veterinary). His main function is the formulation and execution of the departmental schemes in consultation with District Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Officer, and Block Development Officer in respective areas. He is assisted by the Veterinary Field Assistants and Livestock Demonstrators. They provide treatment to the sick animals and organise mass vaccination against contagious diseases and undertake castration of weedy bull.
The Department has established a number of dispensaries , rural animal husbandry centres, veterinary sub-centres, bull extension centres, cattle and poultry farms etc., for treatment and upgradation of local breeds. Further activities of the department has been amply described in chapter IV.
Industries Department :
The Directorats of Industries at the State level is split up into two sections viz., (1) Major di and (2) Small Scale and Cottage di . At the district level, Superintendent of Small Scale and Cottage di heads the team of Govt. Officers for the development of Small Scale and Cottage di . He is under the immediate control of the Assistant Director, Small Scale and Cottage di , Nowgong. To assist the Superintendent of di, there is a provision of Extension Officer in all the Community Development Blocks. The function of this department is to initiate the growth and development of suitable Small Scale and Cottage di , by way of offering technical advice, providing finance in terms of loans or grants-in -aid and also arranging marketing facilities through Government Emporiums both at Diphu and elsewhere.
Under the State Aid To Industries Act, a Loan Advisory Board has been formed by the Government at district and sub-divisional headquarters. At Diphu , the Deputy Commissioner is the Chairman of the Board. The Superintendent of di is the Secretary and Development Officer, Weaving Inspector and Assistant Director of Small Scale and Cottage di are the members of the Board. At Haflong, the Sub-Divisional Officer is the Chairman and Superintendent of di is the Secretary and the other members are Weaving Inspectors and Development Officer.
Besides providing financial assistance to the di under the State Aid To di Act, the Department is running some crafts training centres like tailoring , carpentry, toymaking etc., in the Community Development Blocks of Howraghat , Bokajan, Rongkhang and Maibong. There is one toy-making training -cum-production centre at Diphu where facilities for training in toy and doll-making and carpentry are available. Govt. has also recently opened one Industrial Trining Institute at Diphu.
Co-operative Department :
The Co-operative Department is the district functions under the control of the Assistant Registrar, Co-operative Societies. He is responsible for the effective and proper working of all types of Co-operative Societies in the district. He inspects, and conducts inquiries into the affairs of the societies and supervises the work of their staff. There are two Sub-Divisonal Deputy Co-operative Officers at Diphu and Haflong who supervise the Co-operative Societies in their respective subdivisions.
Besides , ther are Deputy Co-operative Officers for auditing the Societies at the sub-divisional office. The sub-division is divided into circles depending upon of Community Development Blocks in the sub-division. There are nine circles , in the district, 7 in Karbi Anglong and 2 in North Cachar Hills , and in each of these circles, there is one Assistant Co-operative Officers . He is to look after the organisation and inspection besides any other duty assigned to him.
At the end of 1968, the total number of Co-operative Credit Societies in the district stood at 212. Of these , 193 were Primary Agricultural Credit Societies and 19 were Primary Non-Agricultural Credit Societies . Karbi Anglong had 67 Primary Agricultural Credit Societies and 15 Primary Non- Agricultural Credit Societies against North Cachar Hills 38 and 74 respectively.
Forest Department :
Forests in Assam are divided into two categories, viz. Unclasses State Forests and Reserved Forests. Unclasses State Forests were under the control of the respective District Council s. The District Council s used to have their own staff for the control and management of the Unclasses State Forests . Reserved Forest in the district were under the control of four forest divisions of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills , Nowgong , Sibsagar and Cachar. The United Mikir and North Cachar Hills Division formerly known as the Dhansiri Valley Division shifted its headquarters to Diphu from Dimapur in October, 1963 . Recently, the management and control of the Reserved Forests in the district have also been transferres to the respective District Council. Presently , both the Unclasses State Forests and Reserved Forests in Karbi Anglong are managed by the two forests divisions , namely, Karbi Anglong Forest Division, East and Karbi Anglong Forest Division , West and those of the North Cachar Hills by North Cachar Hills Forest Division.
The administrative pattern of all the forest divisions are the same except for the strength of personnel which depends upon the area, number, and importance of the Reserved Forests under the administrative control of the particular forest division. The Divisional Forest Officer is the administrative head of the division. He is assisted by a number of intermediate Officers consisting of the Assistant Conservators of Forests, Range Officers, Beat Officers and Forest Guards etc. For administrative purposes each division is divided into ranges and all ranges in turn are divided and subdivided in Beats and Sub-Beats. The Officer-in-charge of the Range s called Range Officer and that of Beat is Beat Officer. Generally, forest beat is manned by the Forest Guard Grade 1 , assisted by two or more Forest Guards but sometimes , depending upon the importance of the range into consideration , one Deputy Ranger is also posted. Sub-beats are always manned by Forest Guards .
The functions of the forest Department are the protection and scientific working out of the forest to secure the maximum use of its products ; replenishing the stock of timber and other minor forest produce by undertaking afforestation and other regeneration schemes and planning for the long range development of forest resources ; maintenance of a regular supply of raw materials for the forest based industries ; maintenance of forest Dak bungalows and rest houses, roads, buildings etc., as well as opening of new lines of communication to facilitate the development and utilization of the forest resources ; conservation of wild-life and enforcement of forest laws etc.