CHAPTER - X
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF THE DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION
The administrative history of the district may be traced back to the time when a portion of North Cachar Hills was part of the dominions of the Raja of Cachar. In 1829, Mr. David Scott, the first Commissioner of Assam and Agent to the Governor- General on the North East Frontier, induced Govinda Chandra, the last Raja of Cachar, to assign to Tularam a tract of country in the Hills. In 1834, Tularam entered into an agreement with the British Government in which he resigned all the western portion of the tract ceded by Govinda Chandra, retaining the tract to the east, bounded on the south by the Mahur river and the Naga Hills, on the west by the Diyung , on the east by the Dhansiri and on the north by the Jamuna and Diyung. For this, he was required to pay a small tribute receiving in return a monthly pension of Rs.50/-. Tularam died in 1850, and two of his sons held the country for two and a half years longer. In 1854, the tract was resumed by the British Government.
In 1839, the portion of North Cachar not included in Tularam's dominion was annexed to Nowgong and in 1853, a separate officer was placed in charge of the sub-division of North Cachar with head-quarters at Asalu. In 1854, Tularam's territory was added to this officers charge. In the same year, four mauzas comprising the estate known as ''Mahal-Jamunamukh'' were transferred to this subdivision from Nowgong. The sub-division was then administered in all departments by a Junior Assistant Commissioner , as defined in the Assam Code, under the Commissioner of Assam, all civil and criminal appeals going to the Deputy Commissioner (afterwards called Judicial Commissioner of Assam).
In 1867, the sub-division of North Cachar was abolished and a portion of it including Asalu was transferred to the district of South Cachar. In 1868, Mr. Edgar , the Deputy Commissioner of South Cachar, made several suggestions for the administration of the hill villages thus transferred to him. Nothing , however, was done until 1880 when the North Cachar Hills were formed into a sub-division of the Cachar district with head-quarters at Khanjang (Gunjong) ; and placed i charge of an Assistant Superintendent of Police. In 1884, the Frontier Tract Regulation (11 of 1880) was extended to the North Cachar Hills by a Notification. The same Notification under Section 2 of the Regulation declared that certain enactments previously in force had ceased to be in force. The Scheduled Districts Act (XIV) was in force and the rules for the administration of criminal and civil justice were notified under Section 6. The greater part of Assam Land and Revenue Regulation was also extended to the hills in 1896 and in 1900. Section 1 of the then Settlement Rules of the Province was extended in order to provide a basis for settlement of land for special cultivation. But in 1930, the applicable portions were reduced to Sections 1, 2, 69, 94 and 144 A and the Schedule. In 1895, the head-quarters of the sub-division were transferred to Haflong.1
The Karbi which was then known as Mikir Hills in the district of Nowgong, was originally constituted by a notification under the Assam Frontier Tracts Regulation in 1884. In 1898, part of this area was transferred to Sibsagar while part of Naga Hills district was transferred partly to Nowgong and partly to Sibsagar. The amended boundaries of the Nowgong and Sigsagar and Mikir Hills Tracts were notified in 1907. A slight modification was made in 1913-14 , when the area round Dimapur was transferred to the Naga Hills. The erstwhile Mikir Hills Tracts, therefore, fell within the districts of Nowgong and Sibsagar. The Assam Land and Revenue Regulation was extended to the district of Nowgong in 1886 and was , therefore, in force in the greater portion of the Karbi .2
1. The Assam Land Revenue Manual Vol -I. (Fifth Edition)
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SET UP OF THE DISTRICT AND ITS SUB-DIVISIONS.
The present district of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills came into being on 17th November,1951 with two sub-divisions of the Karbi and the North Cachar Hills with head-quarters at Diphu and Haflong respectively. The sub-division was constituted with the areas which comprised the partially excluded areas of the districts of Nowgong and SIbsagar Known as Mikir Hills Tracts in those districts and the Bhoi area of the United Khasi and Jaintia Hilla predominantly inhabited by the Karbi with a view to bringing the hitherto scattered Karbi people under one administration for their all-round improvement. The North Cachar Hills sub-division remained the same as it was before under the district of Cachar. The Constitution Of India gave the status of an autonomous District to both the North Cachar Hills and the Karbi like other autonomous districts of Assam, and it was found expedient to unite these two autonomous areas to form into one district administration while keeping intact the autonomous status of each of these area. Thus, two areas have been brought under one administrative structure having two separate District Council s independent of each other, while there is one Deputy Commissioner for the district with his headquarters at Diphu .
The general administration of the district is vested ,like other plains districts, in the Deputy Commissioner who remains in the immediate charge of the Karbi and is allowed as his immediate assistants two Extra Assistant Commissioners and two Sub-Deputy Collectors. The North Cachar Hills sub-division is entrusted to one Sub-Divisional Officer with two Extra-Assistant Commissioners and one Sub-Deputy Collector as his assistants.
Besides general administration, the Deputy Commissioner is responsible for administration of justice and maintenance of law and order in the district . The Deputy Commissioner hears appeals from the lower courts and exercises power as District Magistrate as well as Session Judge for this district .
Since Independence, planning and development work has become the primary responsibility of the Deputy Commissioner . As the Community Development Blocks are under the direct control and supervision of the Deputy Commissioner he is the Chairman of the Sub-Divisional Development Board, Karbi , and the Block Development Communities in Karbi whereas the Sub-Divisional Officer, Haflong is the Chairman of the Sub-Divisional Development Board, North Cachar Hills and the Block Development Communities in North Cachar Hills .
In the development works ,they are assisted by Sub-Divisional Planning Officers , posted at Diphu and Haflong who acts as a liaison officers between the Community Development Blocks and the Deputy Commissioner and Sub-Divisional Officer in the respective areas.
Agricultural loan, test relief, arms and explosives , issuing of pass-ports , granting of citizenship certificates, supplies, excise, election etc. are such other subjects dealt with by his office. He is also the District Transport Officer of the district.Besides , he is the ex-officio Chairman of the various committees and boards in the district.
For maintenance of law and order in the district , the District Council is assisted by a Superintendents of Police situated at Diphu, the district headquarters and by a Sub-Divisional Police Officer at Haflong, the sub- divisional headquarters. In his own establishment , the District Council maintains several branches for ad of other subjects, the most important ones being Supplies, Excise, Elections, Magistracy, Establishment ,Agricultural loans,. Test relief , Arms and Explosives, Passports and, Citizenship, Treasury and Accounts , Nazarat etc. With all these branches , District Council 's Office appears to be a miniature secretariat. However, unlike plains district, the District Council of this district has no revenue powers, revenue being a District Council subject. Supply and Excise departments have separate district officers and there is also a separate Sub-Divisional Election Office but these functions as branches under amalgamated establishment of the District Council . Each of the Excise and the Supply office is headed by a District Superintendents while the Election Office is headed by an Election Officer.
Among the branches in his own establishment, the Magistracy is the most important. It deals with issue of arms licences, matters relating to law and order situation in the district , disposal of criminal cases in various courts of magistrates, matters relating to compensation under Workmen's Compensation Act . Till recently, one of the Magistrates remained in charge of the Treasury. A Treasury Officer has now been posted at Diphu. The Treasury not only deals with Government bills and vouchers, but also maintains a huge stock of various kinds of stamps which are distributed among various agencies.
The Nazarat branch is headed by a member of the ministerial staff designated as Nazir who is assisted by one or two Assistant Nazirs. The Nazir is the Cashier of the District Council 's Office. He maintains the accounts of stores and receipts from the Circuit House and Dak-Bungalow under the District Council and assists in all processes.
The Office Sub-Divisional Officer at Haflong in the North Cachar Hills is a prototypa of the District Council 's Office at Diphu with similar number of branches and officers. But there is no separate Election Officer at Haflong and the Sub-Divisional Officer (Civil) performs the election duties . Election works are not so heavy there, being only one Assembly Constituency for the whole Sub-Division. The Supply and Excise have one Inspector each at Haflong under the Superintendents at Diphu, but under the immediate control of the Sub-Divisional Officer.
THE DISTRICT AS AN AUTONOMOUS HILLS DISTRICT.
According to the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India, the district of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills was composed of two autonomous districts, i.e. (1) the Autonomous District of Karbi Anglong and (2) Autonomous District of North Cachar Hills, each having a separate District Council independent of each other.
Administration of each autonomous district is vested in a District Council which has legislative, executive, financial and judicial powers.
Legislative powers : The District Council has legislative powers to make laws with respect to (1) administration of land, (2) management of forest, not being a reserved forest, (3) use of canal or water - course for the purpose of agriculture , (4) regulation of the practice of jhum or other forms of shifting cultivation, (5) establishment of village or town committees or councils and their powers, (6)any other matter relating to village or town administration including village or town police and public health and sanitation, (7) the appointment of successors of the chief or the headman, (8) inheritance of property, (9) marriage, (10) social customs , and (11) money-lending.
Judicial powers : The District Council is also empowered to constitute village councils or courts for the trial of suits and cases between parties all of whom belong to scheduled tribes and appoint suitable persons to be members of Village Councils or Presiding Officers of those courts. With the previous approval of the Governor, the District Council is empowered to make regulating the constitution of Village Councils or Courts and the powers to be exercised , the procedure to be followed by the Village Councils or Courts in the trial of suits and cases , the enforcement of the decision and order of such councils an courts and all other ancillary matters.
Executive powers : It is also within their to establish, construct or manage primary schools, dispensaries, markets, cattle pounds, ferries , roads and water ways and to prescribe the language and the manner in which the primary education shall be imparted in the primary schools of the district.
Financial powers : They can as well levy and collect revenue and taxes on animals and boats, taxes on vehicles including motor vehicles, tolls on passengers and good carried on ferries, taxes for the maintenance of schools and dispensaries and roads. They are also entitled to the share of the royalties on minerals found within their areas.
A District Council has a tenure for five years unless it is dissolved earlier by the Governor. Each District Council has a Chairman and a Deputy Chairman, elected by its members. An administrative officer of the Central or State Civil Service is posted in each District Council to act as its Secretary. Each of the District Council has an Executive Committee consisting of one Chief Executive Member elected out of the members of the District Council, and two other Executive Members appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Executive Member from amongst the members of the District Council. The Chairman and the Deputy Chairman are not eligible to hold office either as Chief Executive Members or as a Member of the Executive Committee.
The Executive Members of the District Council enjoy the position which is analogous to the status of a Minister in the State. Each of them holds charge of some independent portfolios on some of the subjects of administration and development pertaining to the district in question and the administrative officers placed at the disposal of the District Council act as Executive Secretaries in the matter of subjects assigned to them.
By a notification , the Governor may direct that any Act of Parliament or that of State Legislature shall not apply to the autonomous district or shall apply to such district or any part thereof subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify in the notification. The Governor may at any time appoint a commission to examine and report on any matters specified by him relating to the administration of autonomous district in the State. If at any time , the Governor is satisfied that an act or resolution of the District Council is likely to endanger the safety of India, he may annul at suspend such act or resolution. He may take such steps as he may consider necessary to prevent the commission or continuance of such act or giving effect to such resolutions. Any order made by the Governor shall be laid before the Legislature of the State as soon as it is possible and the order shall, unless revoked earlier by the Legislature, continue to be force for a period of 12 months from the date on which it was so made.
On the recommendations of the Commission, the Governor may order the dissolution of a District Council and direct that a fresh general election shall be held for the reconstitution of the council. With the approval of the State Legislature, he may assume the administration of the area himself or put the same under a Commission or any other body considered suitable by him.
The Governor is empowered to make rules for the first constitution of the District Council in consultation with the existing Tribal Councils or other representatives of tribal organisations within the Autonomous District. Those rules shall provide for the composition of the District Council and the allocations of seats there in and the delimitation of territorial constituencies for purposes of elections to the Councils, the qualifications for voting at such elections and the preparations of electoral rolls, the term of office of the members of the councils, the procedure and conduct of business in the District Council and the appointment of officers and staff of the district .4
In exercise of the powers conferred by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India and the rules farmed there under by the Governor of Assam, the two District Council consisting of sixteen members each for Karbi Anglong and North Cachar Hills Autonomous Districts were constituted in the years 1951 and 1952 respectively. Out of these, 12 members were elected by adult franchise and 4 were nominated by the Governor. The term of the District Council is 5 years from the date of appointment for its meeting unless dissolved earlier. The said period may be extended by the Governor , by notification in the Gazette for a period not exceeding one year at a time. The District Council shall meet every three months. In the event of an emergency, the chairman of the District Council with the previous approval of the Governor or on receipt of a requisition signed shall summon a meeting of the District Council at a short notice.
To preside over the meeting of the District Council and to perform such other functions akin to the functions of the State Legislature, there is a chairman and a Deputy Chairman for each District Council. They are directly elected by the members of the respective District Council and continue to function till they enjoy the confidence of the House (District Council).
The District Council for an autonomous district in respect of all areas within the district have power to make or amend laws , regulations and rules in respect of matters falling within the purview of the District Council as specified in the Sixth Schedule to the Contsitution. All such proposals to make or amend laws, regulations and rules are to be introduced in the District Council in the forms of Bills. Bills introduced on behalf of the Executive Committee are termed as official Bills and by the members of the District Council in their individual rights are private members Bills. No Bill shall be introduced in the District Council without the prior approval of the Governor. Copies of all official and private member's Bill shall be sent to the Governor through the Deputy Commissioner sufficiently in advance for publication in the Gazette and no Bill shall be published in the Gazette until the permission of the Governor to such publication has been obtained. To become law, a Bill has to pass all the stages of 1st, 2nd and 3rd readings as ordinarily prescribed for the law. When the Bill has been passed by the District Council and authenticated by the Chairman , the Secretary to the District Council shall sent he authenticated copy of the Bill to the Deputy Commissioner for submission to the Governor for his assent. The Governor may assent to the Bill or may return the Bill to the District Council for reconsideration. The point or points referred to for reconsideration or the amendments recommended shall be put before the District Council by the Chairman and shall be discussed and voted upon in the same manner as amendments to a Bill. When a bill has been passed by the District Council and a copy thereof signed by the Chairman, it shall be submitted to the Governor for his assent. After receiving the assent of the Governor, it shall be published in the Gazette and on such publication shall have the force of law.
To exercise the executive function of the District Council there is an Executive Committee for each District Council. The Executive Committee shall consist of three members with the Chief Executive Member as the head. The Chief Executive Members is elected by the District Council and two other members from amongst the members of the District Council are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Executive Member . The Executive Committee shall be collectively responsible to the District Council and may be removed on a vote of noconfidence passed by a majority of the members of the District Council at a meeting specially convened for the purpose. In case, the Executive Committee resigns or is removed on a vote of no-confidence motion and if the District Council fails to elect a new Chief Executive Member within the specified time of 48 hours, the Governor shall a Q ppoint any other members of the District Council as the Mrmbers of the Executive Committee . The Executive Committee so constituted shall continue to function until it is replaced by an Executive Committee constituted in the manner as mentioned earlier.5
4. The Sixth Schedule to the Constitution Of India.
5. Constitution of the District Councils.
DISTRICT COUNCIL OF KARBI ANGLONG
The District Council of Karbi Anglong which was inaugurated on 23rd June, 1952, has 6 branches or departments working under it.
Land Revenue Branch . This branch is responsible for assessment of Land Revenue and House Tax and collection of the same. The allotment of land for various purposes and settlement of the same with ryots are also done by this branch. Besides these, regular revenue works, the assessment and collection of grazing tax and sale of fisheries and collection of revenues are also done by this branch.Further , all miscellaneous enquiries are also made through officerd under this branch.
For revenue administration purpose , The Autonomous District of Karbi Anglong is divided into three Revenue Circles, Diphu, Phulani and Donka and each Circle is placed under the charge of the Assistant Revenue Officer. Each Revenue Circle is again sub-divided into mauzas and placed under the charge of the Mauzadars for collection of Land Revenue and House Tax. There are altogether 20 mauzas in this Autonomous District. Besides, one Gaonbura known as Sarkari Gaonbura for each village has been appointed to assist the Mauzadars in the collection of Land Revenue and House Tax. The Secretary to the District Council is the Revenue Officer of the Karbi Anglong Autonomous District.
Forest Branch : The administration of forest (Unclassed State Forest) in the Karbi Anglong under the District Council is entrusted to this branch. All matters relating to assessment and collection of royalties on various forest products togetherr with settlement of forest Mahals are made by this branch.
The forests un der the District Council of Karbi Anglong are divided intofive ranges, viz, Northern, Eastern, Western, Southern, and Central with offices at Dalamara, Bokajan, Howraghat, Tumpreng and Diphu respectively. Each range is in-charge of one Range Officer. This branch is under the overall charge of the Chief Forest Officer.There are Mahals for each kind of forest products and the right to collect forest products are sold on Mahal basis and outside the Mahal area permit system is followed. The following are the Mahals for each kind of forest products in Karbi Anglong Autonomous District.
General Administration Branch : This branch is responsible for execution of policies laid down by the District Council. In the General Administration, the legislative side of the District Council is also merged. On the legislative side all matters relating to summoning of the Sessions of the District Council, questions, resolutions, motions, drafting of Bill etc., pay and T.A. bills of the Members, Chairman, Deputy Chairman and all other matters relating to Sessions of the District Council and Sub-Committees formed by it including preparation of proceedings and circulation of all such papers to the Members are dealt with. The following are the Acts passed by the District Council of the Karbi Anglong since its inception :-
1. Constitution of the Mikir Hills District Council Act , 1952.
2.The Mikir Hills (Revenue Assessment) Regulation No. 11 of 1952.
3.The Mikir Hills Grazing Regulation of 1953.
4.The Mikir Hills (Money lending by Non-Tribals) Regulation ,1953.
5.The Mikir Hills (Trading By Non-Tribals) Regulation, 1953.
6.The Mikir Hills (Land and Revenue) Act, 1953.
7.The Mikir Hills (Jhuming) Regulation ,1953.
8.The Mikir Hills (Autonomous District Administration Of Justice) Rules, 1954.
9.The Mikir Hills (Cart and Boat ) (Taxation ) Act, 1954.
10.The Mikir Hills (Mnagement and Control ) Act,1954.
11.The Mikir Hills District Fishery Bills of 1955.
12.The Mikir Hills (Money lending by Non-Tribals) Rules, 1955.
13.The Mikir Hills (Trading By Non-Tribals) Rules, 1956.
14.The Mikir Hills (Transfer Of Land ) Regulation No.1 of 1956.
15.The Mikir Hills District (Forest ) Act,1957.
16.The Mikir Hills District (Land and Revenue) (Amendment) Act, 1958.
17.The Mikir Hills District (Member's salary And Allowances ) Act, 1958.
18.The Mikir Hills (Dy. Chairman 's Salary And Allowances ) Act,1958.
19.The Mikir Hills ( Salary And Allowances Of Executive Members ) Act, 1958.
20.The Mikir Hills District (Administration Of Town Committee) Rules, 1958.
21.The Mikir Hills District (Constitution Of Town Committee) Rules, 1958.
22.The Mikir Hills District (Local Rates) Regulation , 1958.
23.The Mikir Hills District (Transfer Of Land ) Act, 1959.
24.The Mikir Hills District (Christian Marriage ) Act, 1962.
25.The Mikir Hills District (Trading By Non-Tribals) (Amendment) Bill , 1962.
26.The Mikir Hills District (Professional , Trades, Callings and Employment Taxation ) Bill , 1962.
On the executive side, besides execising general supervision over all the branches under the District Council, this branch is primarily responsible for (1) dealing in matters of policy of the District Council, (2) holding of Executive Committe's meetings, (3) preparation of budget, (4) financial affairs including preparation and sanction of various works schemes, (5) correspondence with the Government and other offices, (6) supply and maintenance of stationery stores and papers, forms, library, furniture, (7) appointment, transfer, pay, T.A. , leave, etc., of all the employees under the District Council , (8) maintenance of member's hostel, (9) maintenance of vehicles, (10) maintenance of accounts and cash, (11) settlement of contracts, (12) registration of contractors.
Education branch : This branch is responsible for management of Lower Primary Schools including eslablishment of new schools, maintenance and improvement or inspection etc. As mentioned elsewhere , under para 6 of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India, the District Council of the Autonomous District is empowered to establish, construct and manage Primary Schools and prescribe the language and the manner in which Primary Education shall be imparted in the Primary Schools in the Autonomous District. Accordingly, all the Government Lpwer Primary Schools in the Autonomous District of Karbi Anglong have been transferred to the District Council of Karbi Anglong on 1.8.61. Primary Education in Karbi Anglong is now managed by the District Board of Primary Education consisting of 9 members. The Executive Member of the District Council in-charge of the Education portfolios is the chairman of the District Board of Primary Education of Karbi Anglong . Deputy Inspector of Schools of Karbi Anglong is the ex-officio Secretary of the Board . The rest of the members are nominated by the District Council. Prior to the transfer of the Government Lower Primary Schools to the District Council, it had under its management 97 Lower Primary Schools with an enrolment of 13,068 in 1960-61.
Works branch : All the development and normal construction works under the District Council are executed through this branch. These include construction of buildings, road, bridges., culverts, ringwells, irrigation dams and channels and their maintenance together with maintenance of stores in connection therewith. Since the inception of the District Council , this branch has constructed 424.87 miles of roads and 264 ringwells in the Karbi Anglong.
Taxes branch : The administration of Mikir Hills District (Trading By Non-Tribals) Regulation , 1953 the Mikir Hills District (Money lending by Non-Tribals) Regulation ,1953 and Mikir Hills District (Cart, cycle and Boat ) Taxation Act, 1954, including issue of licenses and registration of carts, vehicles, etc., is done by this branch. The sale of weekly markets and collection of revenue and taxes thereof are also done by this branch.
DISTRICT COUNCIL OF NORTH CACHAR HILLS.
The administrative set-up of the District Council of North Cachar Hills is composed of three units, legislative, judiciary and executive.
Legislative Department : All matters realting to the summoning of Sessions of the District Council , questions, resolutions, motions, drafting of bills etc., pay and T.A. bills of the Members, Chairman, Deputy Chairman and all other matters relating to Sessions of the District Council and Sub-Committees formed by it including preparation of proceedings and circulation of all such papers to the Members are dealt with by this department. Following are the Acts and Regulation enacted by the District Council of North Cachar Hills since its inception :-
List of Regulations
1.The North Cachar Hills District Land and Revenue (Adoption of Assam Land and Revenue
Regulation And Rules) Act, 1953.
2.The North Cachar Hills District (Taxes) Regulation,1953.
3.The North Cachar Hills District (Revenue Assessment) Regulation ,1953.
4.The North Cachar Hills District (Trading By Non-Tribals) Regulation,1954.
5.The North Cachar Hills District (Taxes) (Amendment) Regulation ,1955.
6.The North Cachar Hills District (Taxes) (Amendment) Act, 1958.
7.The North Cachar Hills District (Taxes On Entry Of Goods Into The Market ) Regulation ,1956.
Lines of Acts
1.The North Cachar Hills District (Slaries And Allowances Of The Executive Members )Act, 1955.
2.The North Cachar Hills District (Deputy Chairman's Salary And Allowances ) Act, 1955.
3.The North Cachar Hills District (Member's Salary And Allowances ) Act, 1955.
4.The Constitution Of The North Cachar Hills District Council (Amendment) Act, 1955.
5.The Constitution Of The North Cachar Hills District Council (Second Amendment) Act, 1956.
6.The North Cachar Hills District (Adminitration Of Town Committees ) Act, 1956.
7.The Constitution Of The North Cachar Hills District Council (Third Amendment) Act, 1957.
8.The Constitution Of The North Cachar Hills District (Taxes) (Amendment) Act, 1958
9.The Constitution Of The North Cachar Hills District Council (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1958.
10.The Constitution Of The North Cachar Hills District Council (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1958.
11.The North Cachar Hills District (Member's Salary And Allowances ) Act, 1959.
12.The North Cachar Hills District (Christian Marriage ) Act, 1960,
13.The North Cachar Hills District (Deputy Chairman's Salary And Allowances ) Act, 1960.
14.The North Cachar Hills District (Chairman's Salary And Allowances ) Act, 1960.
List of Rules
1.The North Cachar Hills Autonomous District (Administration Of Justice ) Rules, 1955.
2.The North Cachar Hills District (Trading By Non-Tribals) Rules, 1955.
3.The North Cachar Hills District (Member's Travelling And Halting Allowances ) Rules, 1962.
Judiciary Department : The Judiciary under the District Council of North Cachar Hills consists of two courts, i.e.., the District Council Court and the Subordinate District Council Court. There is one Judge for the District Council Court and a Subordinate Judge for the Subordinate District Council Court. The District Council Court exercises its judicial functions as an appellate against the orders and decisions of the Subordinate District Council Court. The Subordinate District Council Court exercises its power both in its original jurisdiction as well as an appellate authority for hearing against the decision of the Village Council.
The District Council Courts are entitled to try suits and cases between parties all of whom belong to the Scheduled tribes other than suits and cases arising out of any law in force in the autonomous district being a law specified in that behalf by the Governor or for the trial of offences punishable with death, transportation for life or imprisonment for a term of not less than 5 years under the Indian Penal Code or under any law for the time being in force in the district. The courts are directly subordinate to the Gauhati High Court.
Executive Department : The Executive side of the North Cachar Hills District Council consists of 4 Department s i.e., General & Revenue ,Forest Department, Financial Affairs and Public Works.
General and Revenue : The Department is sub-divided into five branches of Revenue, Education, Markets and Town, miscellaneous and General.
Revenue Branch : This branch is responsible for assessment of Land Revenue and House Tax and collection of the same. The allotment of land for various purposes and settlement of the same with ryots are also done by this branch. Besides these , regular revenue works, the assessment and collection of grazing tax and sale of fisheries and collection of revenue thereof are also done by this branch.
The whole North Cachar Hills is one unit for the purpose of the revenue administration. There are 19 mauzas in the district, but they are not territorially delimited. Instead, they are constituted tribewise the larger tribes such as Kacharies and the Nagas having more than one mauzas. As the different tribes live interspersed in many areas, those mauzas naturally overlap territorially. Mauzadars are the commissioned revenue collection agencies. They also perform other functions such as inquiry into and settlement of boundary disputes, collection of taxes on animals etc.
The Secretary to the Executive Committee is the Revenue Officer of the District Council who exercises such powers as are invested in the Deputy Commissioner under the Regulation of 1886. Appeal against the order of the Revenue Officer lies with the Executive Member-in-charge of the Land Revenue portfolio.
Education Branch : This branch is solely responsible for management of the Primary Schools under its control such as establishment of Primary Schools, appointment of teachers. The District Council of North Cachar Hills had only six Lower Primary Schools and two Venture Lower Primary Schools under its control in the year 1963. The District Council is also giving grants-in-aid to the Venture Lower Primary Schools and the M.E. Schools under its jurisdiction. Unlike in Karbi Hills autonomous Districts, the Lower Primary Schools and Junior Basic Schools continue to be managed by the State Government.
Markets and Town Branch : The sale of weekly markets and collection of revenue taxes thereof are done by this branch. There are altogether 6 wekly markets in North Cachar Hills autonomous District.
Miscellaneous and General Branch : Leaving aside the matters dealt with by the above branches, the remaining subjects or matters are dealt by these two branches.
Forest Department : The administration of Forest (Unclassed State Forest ) in the North Cachar Hills under the District Council is entrusted to this branch. All matters relating to assessment and collection of royalties on various forest produce together with settlement of Forest Mahals are made by this branch.
The whole area of the forest is divided into 3 regions , named Haflong Region, Langting Region and Diyngubra Region for facility of management and control. Each region is under the charge of the Forest Officers designated as Regional Forest Officer equivalent to the rank of the Forest Ranger of the State Forest Department. each is also sub-divided into beats for better management and control and each beat is placed under the charge of a Subordinate Officer of the rank of the Forester or Assistant Forester. So far, only 4 beats have been opened, viz., (i) Lumding Beat, (ii)Maibong Beat,(iii)Garampani Beat,(iv) dittock Cherra Beat. The Secretary to the Executive Committee of the District Council exercises the power of the Chief Forest Officer.
Royalty on the forest produce is levied as per Schedule prescribed for the purpose and in addition , a monopoly fee is charged up to the maximum of 50 % of the royalty. This fee varies according to the remoteness and inaccessibility of the working area.Timber and fire-wood are exploited under the system of trade permits and occasionally a fire wood coupe is also formed and sold by calling tenders. Mahals have been formed for the working of minor forest produce. Exclusive right for collection of such forest produce from Mahals is sold by calling tenders. Outside the Mahals, exploitation of such forest produce is done on permit system.
The administration of the Minor Minerals of the autonomous District of North Cachar Hills is a State subject and the District Council of North Cachar Hills is entitled to a share of 60 % of the revenue accured therefrom. The District Council is authorised by the State Government to collect revenue on Minor Minerals within its jurisdiction. The revenue is shared by the District Council and the State Government on the basis of 60 :40.
An area of forest measuring approximately 309 miles around Haflong town formerly known as Station Reserve has been taken up under the Regeneration Scheme.
Department of Financial affairs : This department consists of two branches (1) Budgets and Accounts and (2) Taxes. The former one dealing with the financial matters, preparation of budgets, including preparation and sanction of various works schemes and the maintenance of accounts and cash. The latter one is entrusted with administration of the North Cachar Hills District (Trading By Non-Tribals) Regulation , 1953 and The North Cachar Hills District (Taxes On Entry Of Goods Into The Market ) Regulation ,1959. It issues licenses to the non-tribal traders under The North Cachar Hills District(Trading By Non-Tribals) Regulation,1954 on payment of prescribed fees and levies,taxes on professions , trades, callings and emploment under The North Cachar Hills District (Taxes) Regulation , 1953. This tax is levied annualy on the gross income of a person or persons as per schedule.
Collection of entry taxes under The North Cachar Hills District (Taxes On Entry Of Goods Into The Market ) Regulation ,1956 are done through agencies. The whole of North Cachar Hills is divided into & regions for collection purposes. At each region, there is an agent called ' Permit Issuing Agent' who levies taxes through permits as per scheduled rates on the scheduled goods.
Department of Public Works : This department deals with all the works requiring technical knowhow. Originally, this department was set up with the idea of managing the works of the Council alone, that is to say , the building and other construction works owned by the Council and financed by it out of its own resources. Later, when development works such as rural communications, rural water supply, local development works, self-help schemes etc. were entrusted to the Council by Government ,this department had to take up all these works.9
1 .Office of the Deputy Commissioner, Diphu.
2. Office of the Superintendent of Police, Diphu.
3. Office of the Co-operative Societies Diphu.
4. Office of the Deputy Inspector Of Schools, Diphu.
5. Office of the District Agriculture Officer, Diphu.
6. Office of the District Statistical Officer, Diphu.
7. Office of the Executive Engineer, P.W.D. (R&B), Diphu.
8. Office of the Sub-Divisional Officer, P.W.D. (E&D), Diphu.
9. Office of the Superintendent of Cottage and Small Scale Industries, Diphu.
10. Office of the Assistant Employment Officer, Diphu.
11. Office of the Civil Surgeon, Diphu.
12. Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Diphu.
13. Office of the District Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Officer, Diphu.
14. Office of the Weaving Inspector, Diphu.
15. Office of the Divisional Forest Officer (Soil Conservation), Diphu.
16. Office of the District Information and Public Relations Officer, Diphu.
17. Office of the District Research Officer, Diphu.
18. Office of the District Compiler, Revision of District Gazetteer, Diphu.
19. Office of the Supply Inspector, Diphu.
20. Office of the Cocoon Marketing Inspector, Diphu.
21. Office of the Weights and Measures Inspector, Diphu.
22. Office of the Secretary, District Council, Mikir Hills, Diphu.
23. Office of the Assistant Malaria Officer, Diphu.
24. Office of the Head Master, Government High School, Diphu.
25. Office of the Block Development Officer,Howraghat.
26. Office of the Block Development Officer,Rongkhang.
27. Office of the Block Development Officer,Bokajan.
28. Office of the Block Development Officer,Socheng.
29. Office of the Block Development Officer,Lumbajang.
30. Office of the Block Development Officer,Nilip.
31. Office of the Block Development Officer,Amri.
32. Office of the Fishery Officer, Diphu.
33. Office of the Goitre Unit, Diphu.
34. Office of the Sericulture Inspector, Diphu.
In North Cachar Hills.
1. Office of the Sub-Divisional Officer, Haflong.
2. Office of the Executive Engineer, P.W.D. (R&B), Haflong.
3. Office of the Sub-Divisional Information and Public Relations Officer, Haflong.
4. Office of the Sub-Divisional Agriculture Officer,Haflong.
5. Office of the Deputy Inspector Of Schools, Haflong.
6. Office of the Sub-Divisional Officer, Co-operative Societies, Haflong.
7. Office of the Weaving Inspector, Haflong.
8. Office of the Sericulture Inspector, Haflong.
9. Office of the Fishery Officer, Haflong.
10. Office of the Sub-Divisional Medical and Health Officer, Haflong.
11. Office of the Sub-Divisional Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Officer, Haflong.
12. Office of the Head Master , Govt. High School, Haflong.
13. Office of the Supply Inspector, Haflong.
14. Office of the Block Development Officer, Jatinga Valley, Maibong.
15. Office of the Secretary , District Council, North Cachar Hills, Haflong.
16. Office of the Superintendent of Railway Police, Haflong
9. Source :- The report received from North Cachar Hills District Council.