Contents  
Chapter- 1: General
Chapter- 2: History
Chapter- 3: People
Chapter- 4: Agriculture & Irrigation
Chapter- 5: Industries
Chapter - 6: Banking, Trade & Commerce
Chapter - 7: Communications
Chapter - 8: Miscellenous Occupation
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 1
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 2
Chapter - 10: General Administration
Chapter - 11: Revenue Aministration
Chapter - 12 : Law & Order and Justice
Chapter - 13 : Other Departments
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part1
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part2
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part3
Chapter - 15 : Education and Culture
Chapter - 16 : Medical & Public Health Services
Chapter - 17 : Other Social Services

 

Chapter - 18 :  Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organisations
Chapter - 19 : Places of Interest
Chapter - 20 : Glossary

CHAPTER - IX

ECONOMIC TRENDS.

Part 1

INTRODUCTION : -

The United Mikir and North Cachar Hills district presents quite a different picture unlike any plains district of Assam. Inspite of being endowed with vast natural resources, hills and valleys of virgin soil yet to be exploited , this hill district lags far behind of other districts in respect of economic development. The difficult and unexplored terrains which are generally destitute of population stand as barriers in the way of development of communication and as a result , the message of modern civilisation is yet to reach the nook and corner of the district where the unsophisticated tribal folk live in sheer ignorance and poverty depending for food on their traditional method of jhum cultivation and other wild products. Till recently , the general characteristic of a Karbi village was its 'non-permanency' as they were in the habit of shifting their entire village from one hill to another in pursuit of virgin soil for jhum cultivation. Apart from this, they had but little wants for clothing and decent living. The economic condition of the non-Karbi villages is none-the -less better. Expansion of banking facilities to this backward district is precariously negligible. The district as a whole is sparsely peopled having large tracts of waste lands which have, of late, become subject to large scale invasion by land hungry people from outside the district resulting in high growth rate during the decade , 1951-61. According to the 1961 Census, the district had a total area of 15,237 square kilometres and a total population of 2,79,726 persons composed of 1,50,127 males and 1,29,599 females who were occupying 52,773 households distributed over 1,869 villages and only one town , falling under five thanas. The villages are nothing more than small hamlets with a few households, the density per kilometre being 22 in the Karbi Anglong and 11 in the North Cachar HIlls. Unlike the former, there are comparatively bigger and more permanent villages in the latter subdivision. The district is covered by nine Blocks under the Community Development Programme. On the whole, this is the most backward hill district which contributed only Rs.6.40 crores towards State income of which it formed less than 2 percent . The value of agricultural output in that year was Rs.3.7 crores at the constant prices. The per capita income for the same year was Rs. 234 which occupied the ninth place among the districts of Assam.

(a) LIVELIHOOD PATTERN :

A survey on the rural economic conditions in the Karbi Anglong by the Department of Economics and Statistics of the Government of Assam during 1948-50 revealed that about 98 percent of the families in both Karbi and non-Karbi villages were wholly or mainly employed in agriculture and only two percent lived by other pursuits including services. The agriculturists also followed some subsidiary occupations like trade, arts and crafts, services and professions, poultry keeping and dairy farming. It may be noted here that the economic classification of the population replaced the former basis of religion in the Censuses that followed this series of survey in Assam. In the 1951 Census, the entire population of 1,65,440 persons of this district was divided into 1,55,534 agriculturists and 9,906 non-agriculturists on the basis of livelihood pattern, each class forming 94 percent and 6 percent respectively. However, in that Census, there was thin yard-stick to ascertain the actual economically active population in either of the classes of workers which included their non-earning dependents who, in fact, constituted the largest fraction of the population. Among the agriculturists, there were owner- cultivators, non-owning cultivators, rent-receivers and agricultural labourers ,the first category of workers having the largest number. The non-agriculturists were engaged in various pursuits such as production other than cultivation , commerce, transport and other services including miscellaneous occupations of which the last categories having 2.14 percent of the total population predominated. The two main classes of the population were again subdivided into self-supporting , earning -dependents and on-earning dependents ; the last category having the largest numbers in the agricultural class affected adversely the growth of the rural economy of the district.

These figures, however, do not lend themselves to comparison with the figures of the 1961 Census in which the basis of classification was changed to actual work from livelihood pattern in the 1951 Census. In the 1961 Census, the entire population of 2,79,726 of the district was divided into two main classes of workers and non-workers, each class having 1,57,300 and 1,22426 persons respectively. The workers were again divided into nine categories viz., cultivators 1,27,580 ; agricultural labourers 2,224 ; workers engaged in mining, quarrying, livestock, forestry, fishing , hunting , plantations, orchards and allied activities 655 ; workers engaged at household industry 10,113 ; workers engaged in manufacturing other than household industry 380 ; workers engaged in construction 410 ;workers engaged in trade and commerce 1,837 ; workers engaged in transport , storage and communication 1,588 and other services 12,504 .

The following table shows the sex-wise distribution of all the nine categories of workers as well as non-workers in both urban and rural areas as per the 1961 Census Report.1

Statement showing the workers and non-workers classified by sex in the United Mikir and North Cachar Hills District.

SL. No

Head

Urban

Rural

Total

Remarks

Male

Female

Male

Female

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

As cultivator.

12

-

72,458

55,110

127,580

81% of the

total work-

ing popula-

tion

2

As agricultural 1abour

-

1,849

374

2,224

 

 

3

In mining, quarr- ying, livestock, forestry, fishing,

hunting and pla ntation, orchards,

and allied activ ities

12

1

467

175

655

 

4

At house-hold in-

dustry.

-

-

830

9,238

10,113

6.4%of the

total population.

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

5

In manufactu-

ring other than

house-hold industry.

74

42

232

41

389

 

6

In construction.

66

-

324

20

410

 

7

In trade and

commerce.

117

3

1,654

63

1,837

 

8

In transport, sto-

rage and com-

munication.

166

4

1,373

45

1,588

 

9

In other services.

678

80

 

9,913

1,833

12,504

7.9% of the-

total working population.

10

Total workers.

1,126

130

89,100

66,944

157,300

 

11

Total non- workers.

866

1,143

59,035

61,382

1,22,426

 

12

Total population

of the district.

1,992

1,273

1,48,135

1,28,326

2,79,726

 

The above table indicates that in 1961 , the total working population of the district stood at 1,57,300 out of the total population of 2,79,726 and the rest was non-working population. Of the total working population which formed more than 56 percent of the total population, cultivators claimed the overwhelming majority. It constituted more than 81 percent of the total working population. Next comes the workers engaged in other services, who constituted about 7.9 percent of the total working population.House-hold industry provided occupation to about 6.4 percent of the total working population. The rest of the workers were employed in other six categories of occupations given in the above table. This shows that this hill district remained quite undeveloped till as late as the sixties. There was no change in the traditional pattern of livelihood as growths of towns and industry was quite lacking.

Although agriculture was the livelihood of more than four-fifths of the working population, actual dependency on agriculture would be more pronounced. As already mentioned they lived still a primitive life save a few exceptions. Production has not increased to cope with the rapid growth of population. In 1961 , total area under all crops was about 46,249 hectares which meant only about 0.37 hectares per cultivator having five to six dependents on the average notwithstanding large tracts still laying waste. The agricultural labour manage their bare subsistence.

The industrial categories of workers numbering 27,496 only in the 1961 Census were divided into groups. Out of 10,113 workers at household industry only 89 males and 1,630 females were employees, the rest being self workers and family workers. Out of 17,383 workers in the non- household industries, 317 males and 20 females were employers, 10,944 males and 1,626 females employees, 2,615 males and 413 females single workers and 1,200 males and 240 females family workers.

These workers engaged in the non-agricultural sector were again classified into 10 occupational divisions, 75 groups and 331 families according to their occupations as given below : ( Division-wise workers are only shown ).2

 

Male

Female

Total

1

Professional, technical and related workers.

1,217

802

2,019

2

Administrative, executive and managerial workers.

716

54

770

3

Clerical and related workers.

1,040

103

1,143

4

Sales workers

1,739

66

1,805

5

Farmers, fishermen, hunters, loggers and related workers

471

176

647

6

Workers in transport and communication occupations.

589

11

600

7

&

8

Craftsmen, production process workers and

labourers not elsewhere classified.

5,923

9,089

15,012

9

Service, sports and recreation workers.

2,859

323

3,182

10

Workers not classified by occupation.

1,352

966

2,318

 

Apart from classification of the population on the basis of primary occupations it is essential to examine subsidiary occupations pursued by the workers in order to formulate an idea about the economic conditions of different sections of the people. According to the 1961 Census, among cultivators 11,432 males and 13,920 females worked at household industries and 1,026 males and 260 females as agricultural labourers. Likewise, some people professing other occupations pursued also some other work as secondary means of livelihood. However, the number of such people is very negligible. It may also be noted that among persons not at work, there were 692 males and 9,973 females also, rendering household duties. Full-time students also help their parents in day - to- day works particularly in the agricultural families and thus contribute to the family budget. The class of people like beggars, vagrants etc. was also quite negligible as this class had only 74 males and 124 females recorded in the 1961 Census.

Prices : Price in terms of money is only a recent phenomenon coming into being along with the advent of the British prior to which the barter system was prevailing . "Exchange of products was mainly effected through the system of bartering." 3 Sometimes, kowries were also used in small transactions. During the early part of the British administration money, though was drained into the market, it was yet to reach the rural sector particularly in this hill district where the simple villagers satisfied their wants merely by gratis or by bartering their surplus products in the bordering markets.

This district came into being only after Independence and therefore, price position in its constituent areas was the same as in the parent districts, which witnessed waves of rise and fall of prices during the pre-Independence days. Prices in general maintained an increasing trend before and after the First World War after which in 1921 there was a general fall in prices of all commodities. The downward trend in prices was so sharp that it led to the great economic depression from 1929 to 1933. The effect of the Second World War on prices will be found elaborately in the District Gazetteers of those districts. In short, the War-time price spiral went on unabated.

There was virtually no check to the galloping prices in the post- War years also. The all India price index (base 19339-100 ) shot up from 245 in 1945 to 389 in August, 1949. The increase was still higher in Assam where the wholesale price index (base 1939-100) for rice increased from 283 in October, 1946 to 469 in October, 1949, just before the devaluation of the Indian rupee in 1949.

During the post-devaluation period, there was no respite in the increasing prices . Rather the increase was further accelerated by various factors. The price index for rice in Assam reached 648 in October, 1950. As it was observed in the annual report of Land Revenue Administration in Assam 1950-51 , " prices of foodstuffs continued to be as high as before.''

In 1951, when this district came into being , Assam witnessed the highest increase of prices of all commodities so far recorded and this newly born hill district faced great hardship in procuring food- stuff for the people. The rising prices were , however, arrested by various control measures and good harvest. The general price level assumed a downward trend and along with the launching of the First Five Year Plan in 1952, came to stability at a lower level. At the end of the First Plan, prices of foodstuffs showed some increase and the general price level resumed upward trend which went on unabated during Second Plan period not only in Assam but all over India. The All India price level increased by 30 percent as against the decline of 13.4 percent during the First Plan period. In Assam, the wholesale price index (base 1953-100) rose from 117.6 in 1956 to 135.4 in 1961. In the United Mikir and North Cachar Hills district, the wholesale price of rice at Diphu as recorded in the 1961 Census rose to Rs.26.00 per maund in October, 1958 and declined to Rs.21.00 per maund in February, 1959. Though, the price of rice showed slight variations in the following months, it settled down at the same level at the end of 1960. On the other hand , price of arahar dal rose from Rs.28.00 per maund in October, 1958 to Rs.36.00 per maund in March , 1959. Other commodities also showed similar increase . This was, however, a temporary increase as in May, 1959, theprice of arahar dal came down to Rs. 30.00 per maund followed by others and moved round about in the following months. 4 This was, however, a temporary lull in the price level which assumed as increasing trend in 1961. The Chinese aggression in 1962 pushed the price line further up and aggravated the price situation. The following will give an idea of the price situation in Assam in general since 1962 to 1968.

'' The price situation in Assam is essentially a manifestation of the all India phenomenon of rising prices. But the upswing of the price level in the State hes been pronounced due to certain factors like rapid growth of population, transport bottle-necks and virtual dependence on outside supply for essential consumer goods. The general index of wholesale prices for Assam (base 1953-100 ) rose by 82.4 percent during the period 1961-67 from 135.4 in 1961 to 247.0 in 1967. In 1968, while the all India index indicated a declining trend of wholesale prices in Assam prices rose by another 6.6 percent over the previous year.''5

The following table will show indices of wholesale prices in Assam since 1956.6

Year. (Base 1953-100)

Year

Food

Non-food

General (all commodities)

1956

117.9

117.8

117.6

1961

130.9

144.8

135.4

1966

218.1

199.1

211.6

1968

292.3

206.1

263.3

 

The following table will show the wholesale price indices of different articles in the respective groups since 1960.7

( Base 1953-100 )

Year

Food

cereals

pulses

edible oils

sugar and gur

total food.

1960

132.9

103.4

117.5

109.1

128.8

1961

130.4

100.0

132.1

107.7

130.9

1962

136.2

115.4

134.9

108.0

136.2

1965

252.2

219.5

219.5

158.9

218.1

1967

321.4

279.3

249.1

258.8

272.8

1968

360.5

254.1

222.1

377.8

292.4

 

( Base 1953-100 )

 

Non-food.

 

liquor &

tobacco

Raw materials

finishe products

total non-food

all com-

modities

1960

133.4

131.4

143.3

136.1

131.2

1961

129.6

173.4

127.4

144.3

135.4

1962

123.2

141.9

139.3

136.3

135.9

1965

188.0

244.7

165.5

199.1

211.6

1967

160.8

227.5

176.2

194.7

247.0

1968

244.9

230.6

178.1

206.1

263.3


Consumer Price Index : The consumer price index number in terms of 1949 prices for working class in the urban centres of Assam during the last five years follows more or less the rising trend of wholesale prices as discussed above. The index of Assam as a whole rose to 239 in 1968 over 173 in 1966 reflecting an upward trend in the cost of living of the working class as a whole in the urban areas. The consumers price index number for rural population also reflected upward trend in the cost of living of the rural people in the plains districts of Assam, the number rising from 229 in 1966 to 278 in 1968 and the hill districts are no exception to such trend.

Wages : Wages formed the main source of livelihood of about seven percent of the total population as per the 1961 Census. The number of agricultural labourers was not large while most of the wage earners were in the on -household industries including trade and commerce, transport and communication and servces including government services . The highest number of 9,387 employees forming more than 75 percent was in the services group. This shows that the district was industrially very backward and no big industry was working in the district.

In the past, agricultural labourers were generally fed and paid in kind and whatever moneywage was paid, was very negligible. In the rural areas of the plains districts of the Assam, agricultural labour wages assumed an increasing trend after Independence. In 1956, average daily wages for carpenter was Rs.4.20 while for blacksmith Rs.3.50 and malefield labourer Rs.2.42, while for other male agricultural labourer and herdsman it were Rs.2.36 and Rs.1.75 respectively. In 1968, their wages increased to Rs.6.29, Rs.5.72, Rs.3.37, Rs.3.17 and Rs.2.13 respectively. Such increase of wages in Assam as a whole and a continuous increase of prices had reflection in the hill districts also. The sample survey conducted during 1948-50 in the rural areas in the Karbi forming parts of Mowgong and Sibsagar districts revealed the conditions of agricultural labourers as follows : ''During the busy season the monthly wages paid to labourers varied from Rs.30 to Rs.45 and in kind from 3.5 to 4 mounds of paddy. It is sometimes the custom to provide free food during the working hours in compensation of reduced wages in kind. Clothings are also sometimes provided .''8 This survey also revealed that wages of field labourers in non-Karbi villages are similar to those in the plains districts and were usually higher than it is in the Karbi villages. The annual economic surveys in Assam conducted by the Department of Economic and Statistics reveal an increasing trend in the average daily wages of agricultural labourers in Assam.

Minimum Wages : With a view to root out the economic in-justice to the working class people, the Minimum Wages Act. was introduced in the State in 1952. The Act. covered the workers in tea plantations, public motor transport, and rice and flour mills. It was extended during the subsequent years (1953-59) to cover agricultural labour and workers under the Public Works Department (road construction, building operation, stone breaking and stone crushing) and under local authorities. The minimum wages for workers under Public Works Department were revised 1964 and fixed at Rs.3.25 per day for unskilled workers and the provisions of the Act. were extended to workers engaged in maintenance of roads and buildings. In 1966, the minimum wages for workers in the engineering and plywood industries were fixed at Rs. 3.25 per day for unskilled labourers. The Act. was extended to Bidi-making industry in 1966 and to the jute baling industry a year later. The rates of wages were Rs.2.75 per thousand bidis for the former industry and Rs.85.00 per month for the unskilled workers in the latter.9

Standards of living : It has been already pointed out that this hill district remained backward even after passing through three five-year plans. The living condition of the people particularly of the tribal folk in the far flung hilly areas remained almost unchanged. They are still agriculturists practising the traditional Jhuming cultivation though attempts have been made by the government and the District Councils to encourage wet cultivation as well as some of terrace cultivation in particular areas wherever possible. In the Karbi villages, the people have but very few economic problems which, however, are sizeable in other villages. In the remote hilly areas, people still live in ignorance and poverty and the ideas of higher standard of living have no impact upon them. The undeveloped communication holds back the implementation of various development programmes. As a natural consequence the vast majority of the people have to live a life below the minimum standard of living .

The sample survey conducted in the Karbi Anglong during 1948-50 revealed that the average holdings per family measured 13.39 bighas and that small holdings form 37.12 percent of the total holdings in Karbi villages against 10.67 percent in the non- Karbi villages. On the other hand, large holdings amounted to14 percent in the Karbi villages against 46.59 percent in the non-Karbi villages. The average annual gross income per family was Rs.327.00 in Karbi villages and Rs.898.00 in non- Karbi villages, the per capita income being Rs. 49.00 and rs.157.54 respectively. The average annual expenditure per family was Rs.340.00 in Karbi villages and Rs.925.00 in Non-Karbi villages. This shows that the budget of the average family in both groups of villages is always a deficit one.10 The per capita income and expenditure show that the standard of living was comparatively better in the non- Karbi villages than in Karbi villages although in both cases, it was far below the minimum tolerable standard. The bulk of the expenditure of a Karbi family was covered by food which accounted for 70.9 percent against 64.42 percent of a non-Karbi family ; tea , tobacco and drugs accounted for 13.79 percent against 9.56 percent respectively. This reveals that the impoverished habit of the Karbi people leaves almost nothing for spending on other amenities like education, medical care, travels etc., not to speak of luxury goods. People in the lower income group have the low standard of living while in the higher income group, their income is offset by increasing number of consumption unit. The primitive typed dwelling houses, i. e.., chang-ghars on raised platforms built with indigenous on food and beverages are indicative of their low standard of living. In the plains portions where most of non- Karbi villages exist living which is noticeable particularly in the semi-urban areas, growth of towns being negligible. In the district , there is only one town viz., Haflong town in the North Cachar Hills . With exception to this town, the economic conditions of the people in the North Cachar Hills do not materially differ from that prevailing in the Karbi , but for want of data nothing can be stated specifically.

There has been no further sample survey of economic conditions in rural areas of the district . The per capita income of the district stood at Rs.234.00 in the 1961 Census on the basis of 1960-61 prices against the State per capita income of Rs.311.0.

The average per capita income and expenditure do not indicate the general level of standard of living. It has been already pointed out that except a very few, the vast majority of the people in this district have a low income which is much below the minimum income. The average budget of a rural family is always a deficit one which enhances indebtedness in the rural sector. The measures so far taken by the Government and the District Councils have but little effect on the development of economic conditions vis-a-vis standard of living of the people.

Family Budget : The sample survey as referred to above revealed that a great majority of the rural people were members of the families of two or more persons sharing a common income earned mostly by the joint efforts of the family unit and also disbursed in supplying the consumption needs of the family as a whole. Items as clothing, drugs and narcotics, medical care, travels and personal expenses were, of course, purchased on individual basis. Yet the bulk of the family income was disbursed on food, shelters and other commodities and services shared by all members of the family . Families in similar economic groups tend to reveal definite limitations in the pattern of spending. The most important factor influencing the pattern of consumption was the amount of income available. The diversities of the expenditure within a given income group were due to some such factiors as the size of the family , occupation , geographical location and social environment.

1. Census of India, 1961 , Assam, District Census Hand Book, United Mikir and North Cachar Hills ,Gauhati, 1965 pp. 1961-65

 

2. Ibid pp. 192-204.

3. E.A. Gait : A History of Assam, Calcutta, 1967

4.Census of India, 1961 , District Census Hand Book, United Mikir and North Cachar Hills, Gauhati, 1965

 

5. Economic Survey of Assam, 1970, Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Assam,
6.Statistical Handbook of Assam, 1965 to 1968.
7. Economic Survey of Assam, 1968, Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Assam

8. A Survey of the Rural Economic Conditions in Mikir Hills, Department of Economics and Statistics, Govt. of Assam, Shillong,1953

9. Economic Survey of Assam, 1970, Department of Economics and Statistics , Government of Assam

10. A Survey of Rural Economic Conditions in Mikir Hills, Department of Economics and Statistics, Govt. of Assam , Shillong , 1953

Components of average annual gross-income of a family

- Karbi Anglong sample.

Value in rupees

 

Karbi Villages.

Non Karbi Villages.

Average gross-income of a family in the sample

Average gross-income of a family in the sample

Value of items

obtained and not sold

Value of items obtained and cash

income

Total

Percentage of total income

Value of items obtained and not sold

Value of items obtained and cash

income

Total

 

Percentage of total income

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Agricultural produce.

199.85

70.39 (57.1% of col.4.)

270.24

82.77

500.85

219.18

(75.%

of col.8)

792.03

88.24

 

Milk and milk

products.

2.59

1.11

3.70

1.14

9.86

1.63

11.49

1.28

Cottage indus-

tries.

0.88

13.76

14.64

4.48

2.17

1.37

3.54

0.39

Wages.

-

17.93

17.93

17.93

5.49

-

40.30

4.49

Miscellaneous.

0.02

10.47

10.49

3.21

-

14.20

14.20

1.58

Trade,service and professions.

-

9.51

9.51

2.91

-

36.04

36.04

4.02

Total

203.34

123.17

326.51

100.00

512.88

384.72

897.60

100.00

 

 

(62.5% of col.4)

 

 

 

(75% of col. 8)

 

 


It is seen from the above table that the major income of the average family was derived from the value of items in kind and not sold. About 62.3 % of the average incomes of the Karbi Villages and 57.1 % of the average income of the non-Karbi villages were derived from items produced at farm or at home. Among the cash receipts, the most important group was agricultural produce forming 57.1 % in the Karbi villages and 75.7 % in the non- Karbi villages. The items of receipts following next in order of importance in both groups of villages were wages, cottage industries, trade, service and professions. Income from the cottage industries in non-Karbi villages was, however, quite negligible (being only 0.36 %). Milk and milk products contributed very little to the income of the Karbi people due to their social customs disfavouring milking cows and she-buffaloes . The average gross income per family in the Karbi villages was Rs. 327.00 and in the non-Karbi villages Rs.898.00 per annum leading to per capita gross-income of Rs.49.00 and Rs.157.54 respectively.

The survey revealed that in both the village groups a large share of the average income was obtained in kind retained for own use. In the farmless families , the major share of the income was in cash derived from trade, service and professions, labour wages or cottage industries and the annual average income per family was greater than that per family holding small farms in both groups of villages.

The average net annual income per family varied from Rs. 127.00 to Rs. 1,042.1 in different farm size groups in the Karbi villages and from Rs.362.3 to Rs.2,876.9 in the non-Karbi villages. The overall per family average net annual income in the two village groups was Rs.298.5 and Rs.706.9 respectively and the per capita net income was Rs.44.56 and Rs.124.02 respectively.

Expenditure : The average annual expenditure per family in the Karbi villages was Rs.340.00 and in the non-Karbi villages Rs.925.00 according to the above mentioned sample survey. It follows that the budget of the average family was a deficit one in both the Karbi and non-Karbi villages. The following tables show the board pattern of an average family in both groups of villages as per the Karbi Hills sample survey.

Components of the Average Annual Expenditure of Rural Families,

- Karbi Anglong sample. ( Karbi village)

(Size of average family consists of 6.7 members)

Items of Expenditure

Value of items obtained in kind and consumed (Rs)

Cash expenditure

Rs

Total expenditure

 

Rs

Percentage to total

1

2

3

5

6

(A) Food

Rice. Pulses. Potato and vege-

tables. Fish and meat.

Salt and spices.

Mustard oil.

Sugar and gur.

Milk and milk

products

 

171.83

-

-

 

-

-

-

0.07

1.18

 

24.29

0.92

1.11

 

23.42

8.73

3.12

3.75

0.59

 

196.12

0.92

1.11

 

23.42

8.73

3.12

3.82

1.77

 

 

57.76

0.27

0.33

 

6.90

2.57

0.92

1.12

0.52

 

Total -

173.08

65.93

70.32

(B) Clothing

4.20

18.21

22.41

6.60

(C) Fuel and lighting

-

3.32

3.32

0.98

 

(D) Tea, toba- Tea

cco and Betel-nut

drugs. Tobacco.

Liquor.

-

-

- 10.10

.44

10.26

15.21

1.67

9.44

10.26

15.21

1.77

2.78

3.02

4.48

3.46

 

Total

10.10

36.58

46.68

13.74

(E) Miscellane- Wages

ous. Interest

Repairing of

homesteads

.-

-

 

-

0.74

8.01

 

-

0.74

8.01

 

-

0.22

2.36

 

-

 


1

2

3

4

5

Education.

Medical

Marriages,

ceremonies etc.

Travelling.

Litigation.

Ornaments.

Others.

-

-

 

-

-

-

-

0.55

 

0.83

0.51

 

13.26

0.01

-

-

4.23

0.83

0.51

 

13.26

0.01

-

-

4.78

 

0.25

0.15

 

3.91

0.00

-

-

1.40

Total -

0.55

27.59

28.14

8.29

Grand Total -

187.93 1

151.93

339.56

100.00