Contents  
Chapter- 1: General
Chapter- 2: History
Chapter- 3: People
Chapter- 4: Agriculture & Irrigation
Chapter- 5: Industries
Chapter - 6: Banking, Trade & Commerce
Chapter - 7: Communications
Chapter - 8: Miscellenous Occupation
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 1
Chapter - 9: Economic Trends Part 2
Chapter - 10: General Administration
Chapter - 11: Revenue Aministration
Chapter - 12 : Law & Order and Justice
Chapter - 13 : Other Departments
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part1
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part2
Chapter - 14 : Local Self Government Part3
Chapter - 15 : Education and Culture
Chapter - 16 : Medical & Public Health Services
Chapter - 17 : Other Social Services

 

Chapter - 18 :  Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organisations
Chapter - 19 : Places of Interest
Chapter - 20 : Glossary

CHAPTER-II

HISTORY

(a) EARLY HISTORY :

Both records and remains testify that the people now inhabiting the geographical and administrative units of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills district had a long history of their own. The Neolithic and Megalithic finds and monuments support the view that both the Karbis and the Hill Kacharis, who were the authors of some of these antiquities settled in and around the present district.

1.The Karbis :

The Karbis, apparently of Bodo origin, live in the hills between Sibsagar district and Naga Hills.1 They also called themselves Arleng which means man. Though the plains people called them Mikirs it is difficult to trace the origin of the word Mikir. It may have originated from Mikir, meaning hill tribe. In origin they have a mixture of both Austric and Bodo blood. So far as this tribe is concerned we do not have enough historical materials to show that they had ever built a political dynasty just like the Ahoms, the Kacharis and the Jaintias, and it seems quite probable that they changed hands of their masters at different periods of Assam's history.

(b)EARLY MEDIEVAL AND MEDIVAL PERIOD . :

(i) Karbi-Ahom-Kachari relation :

Colonel Dalton describes that Karbis were originally settled in North Cachar Hills.2 Being oppressed by the Kacharis, they migrated westward to the Jaintia territory and meeting the sdame fate there, some of them migrated to Dimarua, Beltola and Rani in the district of Kamrup and the rest settled in the hills named after them. 3 An embassy was sent to the Ahom Governor at Raha with a view to placing themselves under the protection of the Ahom king. But, as the ill-luck would have it, the delegates were unable to explain themselves and they were buried alive in the tank which the governor was excavating at that time. Hostilities ensued but they were soon brought under the subjugation of the Ahoms. This incident seems to have occurred during the reign of the Ahom king Rajeswar Sinha. 4 In July 1765 he undertook operation against the hostile Karbis by dispatching two forces, one entering Chapanala and another through the Kopili and the Jamuna river. The two forces defeated the Karbis and burnt their houses and granaries. The Karbi is agreed to pay tributes and begged forgiveness. The Ahom king appointed a Principal Chief over the whole clan and collected tribute from them in kind valued at about Rs.338 per annum.5

The articles consisted of the following :

1. 300 bundles of cotton ------ Rs.300
2. 300 bamboo mats ------ Rs 10
3

300 bundles of naluka, the bark of a tree used as a perfume.

------ Rs 16
4 300 Sancipat, (the bark of a tree used formerly as paper to write on. ----- Rs 12
  Total ------ Rs 338

Though the Karbis had placed themselves under the protection of the Ahom kings and paid regular tributes to them, yet they were required to pay the revenue to the neighbouring Kingdoms of Cachar and Jaintias. No regular revenue was paid to them and "whatever was exacted in kind or corn was more in the shape of black mail.....................................................and the aggregate amount realized by both states may be estimated at about half the sum paid to the Rajah of Assam, or the annual sum levied by the states from the whole tribute did not, probably, exceed in values 500 rupees".6

       The above version of migration and skirmishes with the Kacharis and the Jaintias is also supported by the legend of the tribe, according to which their first settlement in the area was at Sochang, which was a Khasi village ( in west Rong-khang Mouza and still said to contain some ruins of the settlement). Mukaitro Rongpi was the first man to settled there. Later on Ronghang Lindok, Chief of the Karbi drove away Mukaitro Rongpi and made Socheng a capital. It is said that Rong-hang Lindok was a man with divine power who could make friendship even with wild animals. The tradition current amongst the people also gives various accounts of their fights with the Kacharies (Parok in Karbi dialect) and Jaintias at different times. Their legendary hero, Thong-Nokbe fought with the Kacharis at Ghilani (near Borthal) and Kirkim (near Umteli village, both the villages are within the Karbi Anglong). He also fought with the Jaintias. Some of these legends are found confirmed by the Assamese chronicles.

1. Census of India 196, Assam, United Mikir & North Cachar Hills, p.11.
2. B.C. Allen : Assam District GAZETTEER, Vol. VII Sibsagar, Allahabad, 1906, p.84.
3. Major John Butler : Travels and Adventures in the Province of Assam, p.127.
4. E.A. Gait : History of Assam, p.187.
6. Ibid, p.128.
 

( c ) MODERN PERIOD :

( ii ) Karbi-British relation :

With the downfall of their masters the Ahoms, the Karbis also came under the subjugation of the British. In the year of 1837-1938 the system of taking tribute in kind was abolished and the first revenue settlement was effected with them by levying at a certain rate. The Mikir Hills Tract in the district of Mowgong was originally constituted by a notification under the Assam Frontier Tract Regulation (11 of 1880) in the year 1884. In 1898 a part of this was transferred to Sibsagar while part of the Naga Hills district was transferred partly to Nowgong and partly to Sibsagar.7 The amended boundaries of the Nowgong and Sibsagar Mikir Hills Tracts were notified in 1907. A slight modification was made in 1913-14, when the area around Dimapur was retransferred to the Naga Hills. The Mikir Hills Sub-division was later constituted, except the Bhoi area of Jowai Sub- division of United Khasi & Jaintia Hills which was within the district of Sibsagar and Nowgong. Till 1951, therefore, this Sub-division as a geographical and political unit did not exist.

2. KACHARIS : ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY

The Kacharis are said to have been " the aborigines, or the earliest known inhabitants, of the Brahmaputra Valley."8 The origin of the word Kachari is still shrouded in mystery. They call themselves Bodo or Bodo-Fisa in the plains of Assam and Dimasa or Dima-Fisa (sons of the great river )., in the North Cachar Hills. Unlike the Karbis the Kacharis in the past played a distinct historical role and exercised political domination over a large part of the Brahmaputra. Valley which continued even after the Ahom began their rule in Assam. Duration and extent of their political domination and culture may be well testified from the name of the places particularly of rivers preceded by di or ti the Bodo word for water . The rivers like Dibru, Dikhow, Dihang, Disang, Dimala etc., may be derived from the Bodo word.

         According to Fisher there is a belief among the Kacharis of the North cachar Hills that they once ruled over Kamrup and the royal family is said to have its descent from the raja of that country, of the line of Ha-tsung-tsa. From there they moved to Halai and finally established their kingdom at Dimapur.9

• Assam Land Revenue Manual Vol.I Eighth Edition, pp CLXvi—CLXvii
• E.A. Gait : History of Assam, p.247.
 

( b ) EARLY MEDIEVAL AND MEDIEVAL PERIOD :

Kachari-Ahom Relation :

During the early part of the 13th century, when the Ahoms entered Assam " the Kachari Kingdom extended along the south bank of the Brahmaputra, from the Dikhou to the Kalang, or beyond, and included also the valley of the Dhansiri and the tract which now forms the North Cachar Sub-division."10 The Dikhou river formed the boundary between the two kingdoms of the Kacharis and the Ahoms for many years or till first collision which took place in the year 1490 A.D. on the bank of above river. The Ahom forces sent by Suchangpha were defeated and he "offered a girl, two elephants and 12 slaves to the Kachari to induce them to make peace."11

        The scene of the battle is in itself significant, as it showed that the Kachari could fight, and fight successfully at a considerable distance from their capital, and that they could make their influence felt not only in the Karbi Anglong and the forest of the Dhansiri but in the fertile plains of Jorhat and Golaghat. But it was for long that they were to enjoy the pleasant sense of victory. The Ahom power was rapidly growing and during the next 30 years inspite of these defeats they gradually thrust the Kackari boundary back to the Dhansiri valley.

         In 1524 Ahom's territory was again attacked by the Kacharis,but the same was repulsed and the Kachari king gave his sister to the Ahom king. Two years later, in 1526,war again broke out. The Ahom king Suhungmung marched up to the Dhansiri Valley and gave order for the construction of a fort at Marangi. He then proceeded to Maiham with his army. The Ahom forces were however attacked, Maiham was re-captured by the Kacharis. The Ahom forces again advanced and the Kacharis retreated after fighting bravely. They were persued by the Ahoms who succeeded in in flicting a defeat upon the former.

            Again in 1531 the fort at Marangi was constructedby the Ahoms. This offended the Kachari king Khunkhara and he despatched his brother Detcha to throw them out. In the battle that ensued the Kacharis were defeated. Ahoms advanced further with a large army and halted at the junction of Doyang and Dhansiri rivers. In the night atttack a place called Nika was taken. In advancing further the Ahoms divided their army into two ; one ascending the left and the other right bank of the Dhansiri river. In another skirmish the Kacharis were again defeated. Being persued by the Ahom forces upto Dimapur, Kachari king fled with his son and a prince named Detsung was set up in his place, who gave his sister in marriage to the Ahom king with a number of presents including an elephant, five hundred swords and cloths, 1,000 napkins, 100 doolies and Rs.1,000 in cash.

             There was no lasting peace between the two neighbours. Hostilities again ensued in 1536 and the Ahom forces again invaded the Kachari kingdom. The Ahom forces were led by the king himself upto Marangi. The Kachari king Detsung took shelter in a fort on Daimari Hills, and on arrival of the advancing Ahoms, he first went to Lengur and then to Dimapur. The Ahom forces did not relax their persuit and march into Dimapur. The Kachari king again took to his heels, leaving his mother and three princesses. The former was killed and the latter were sent to th Ahom capital. Detsung was also captured and put to death. His head was brought and buried on the Charaideo Hills. No further fight was attempted by the Kacharis. The Ahoms becams masters not only of the Dhansiri Valley, but also of the whole of the Kachari possessions north of the river Kalang in Nowgong. The Kacharis now left Dimapur and moved to Maibong on the bank of the Mahur river in the North Cachar Hills where they established themselves again in power. Dhansiri Valley soon relapsed into jungles with the departure of the Kacharis.

            Since the abandonment of the Dimapur by the Kacharis and establishment of their kingdom at Maibong, no engagement between the Kacharis and the Ahom is found recorded till the beginning of the 17 th century. During this period it is learnt that Kacharis continued to consolidate their kingdom and took possession of a large area in Nowgong district and North Cachar Hills and started a career of expansion even into the plains of Cachar.

         Kacharis after establishing themselves at Maibong thought that they had passed beyond the sphere of Ahom influence as the latter would not be able to attack them through dense jungles and hills, but their hopes belied. Jasa Manik, a Jaintia king, with a view to taking revenge of his humiliation he suffered at the hands of the Kacharis, offered his daughter to the Ahom king Pratap Sinha with a condition that she should be taken through the Kachari territory. The Ahom king Pratap Sinha (Susengpha) sought for the consent of the same from the Kachari king, Satrudaman, but the latter not only refused the permission to escort the girl from his territory but raided Ahom's territory shortly there after. Enraged by the refusal and subsequent aggression, the Ahom king marched its forces up to the Kopili where a Kachari chief was defeated. The forces advanced further to Satgaon and another defeat was inflicted upon the Kacharis at Dharamtika. Kacharis then retreated to Maibong and left strong garrison in the fort at the junction of the Kopili and Maradoiang rivers. Ahom's attack on the fort was repulsed; a message was sent to the Ahom king who advanced with fresh troops up to the Dhansiri Valley and captured the place of Demalai. Jantia princess was brought safely from Jaintiapur to Raha and then to Ahom capital. Ahom forces withdrew leaving a strong part of their forces at Raha under the charge of a Gohain named Sundar.

          On being demanded by the Ahom Gohain to pay tribute failing which Maibong will be attacked, the Kacharis under the command of Bhimdarpa, the brother of their king , launched a night attack on the Ahom fort. Sundar and many others were killed and the rest somehow escaped. Satrudaman celebrated this victory by assuming the name of Pratapnarayan and renaming his capital as Kirtipur. As the Ahom king was required to be engaged with the Muslims he wisely decided to makepeace with the Kacharis. The Kachari king was pacified but demanded an Ahom princess in marriage and accordingly a daughter of one of the chief nobles was given to him.

          Satrudaman was succeeded by his son Narnarayan who died after a very short period. He was succeeded by his uncle Bhimpal or Bhimdarpa who also died in 1637 without any major event. His sons Indra-Ballabh on his accession sent a friendly message along with some present to the Ahom king, but the tone of his communication offended the Ahom king. Birdarpanarayan after his succession in 1644 again communicated with the Ahoms, but he was informed that " the style of his letter was unbecoming on the part of a protected king."12 The Kachari king objected to the use of word "protected" but on being offered a Ahom princess he was satisfied. However his relations with the Ahoms remained strained and in 1660 he was asked to sent the usual envoys, otherwise his country would be attacked.

           In 1663, Chakradhvaj Sinha, the Ahom king after his accession, sent envoys to the Kachari king and asked for the expulsion of the Marangi Khowa Gohain who fled to his territory during Mirjumala's invasions. the Kachari king refused to comply with the request and allowed the Ahom envoys to leave his kingdom. Later on when the Ahom king defeated the Muhammedans in 1667, Birdarpa sent envoys with messages, and friendly relations were restored.

            Birdarpa was succeeded by his son Garuradhvaj in 1681. He sent messenger to the Ahom court demanding that the usual congratulatory be despatched by the Ahom king to his court. In reply to the Kachari king he was intimated to send first his envoys with messages in usual forms to the king and his chief nobles. This the Kachari king did not comply with and the relation between the two remained strained till his death in the year 1695. Garuradhvaj was followed by his two sons Makardhvaj and Udayaditya.

         From the Ahom-Kachari relations during the last four decades of the 17th century described above, it may be gathered that the Kacharis gradually asserted their independence forgetting their past defeats at the hands of the Ahoms. During this period the Ahoms were also occupied with the successive Muhammedan aggressions and their own other troubles which left for them little time and power to deal with the Kacharis. the process of ascertaining independence by the Kacharis continued and at last during the reign of the Ahom king Rudra Sinha, Tamardhvaj, the Kachari king declared his independence. Ahoms , who had overcome their difficulties by this time, decided to bring them under submission. Two armies were despatched, one under the Bar-Barua who entered the Kachari territory Dhansiri valley and other under the command of the Paniphukan who marched up to the Kopili valley via Raha. The march of the two batches of army and their encounter with the Kacharis, are found described in detail in the Assamese Chronicles. The Bar-Barua started from Sala in December 1706, entered the valley of the Dhansiri and reached Samaguri fort, 106 miles from Sala.The Nagas on the way to the fort gave trouble. Troops had to be sent against the Nagas, and a few of them were killed. Even then the forts near Samaguri were required to be strengthened for putting a stop to further raids by the Nagas. The Ahom forces continued their march and after many skirmishes they safely arrived at the Kachari capital Maibong. The Ahom forces sacked the capital and took with them a good deal of booty including a cannon and a large number of guns.

       Nothing is known about the Kachari king for the next sixty years. An inscription on the rock-cut temple at Maibong, dated Saka 1633 (1721 A.D.), proves the existence of a king named Haris Chandra Narayan. According to another historical document the reigning monarch in 1736 was one Kirti Chandra Narayan. In 1765 Sandhikari was the Kachari king to whom messenger was sent by the Ahom king Rajeswar Sinha for demanding his appearance at his court. But Sandhikari did not receive the messenger . The Ahom king got offended and sent his Bar-Barua with an army to Raha. The Kachari king surrendered himself to the Bar-Barua and was taken before the Ahom king by whom he was admonished. In 1771 he was succeeded by Haris Chandra Narayan, who is credited in an inscription with the erection of a palace at Khaspur.

        In the later part of the 18th century many Moamarias and other Ahom subjects took protection in the Kachari kingdom during the reign of Krishna Chandra. The Ahom king Kamaleswar demanded the expulsion of the above refugees. Refusal of the same led to the war between the two. The fight which began in 1803 continued till 1805 and the Kacharis along their allies suffered a crushing defeat.

• B.C. Allen : Assam District geers, Vol.1, Cachar Calcutta, 1905, p.20. An account of origin of the Kachari and theirKingdom may also be found in Sibsagar District geers, pp.34-36.
• E.A.Gait : History of Assam p.248.
• B.C.Allen : Assam District geers, Vol.1, Cachar, Calcutta, 1905, p.20.
12. E.A.Gait : History of Assam.p.254.
 

Kachari-Koch relation :

Kacharies after establishing their kingdom at Maibong on the bank of the river Mahur had to face not only the Ahom invasions but also those led by the Koch rulers. According to Assamese Chronicles like the Darrang Raj Vansavali the Kachari king was defeated about the middle of the 16th century by Chilarai, the brother and the general of the great Koch king Nara Narayan. The Kachari king in addition to giving a large number of elephants and other presents promised to pay an annual tribute of seventy thousand rupees, one thousand gold Mohars and sixty elephants.

Kachar-Jaintia relation :

The first encounter between the two took place in the beginning of the 17th century, when the Jaintia king Dhan Manik captured Prabhakar , a chief of the Dimarua, whose family owed allegiance to the Kacharis. Satrudaman, the then Kachari king, demanded the release of Prabhakar. Failing to get the release of his chief, the Kachari king sent his forces to the Jaintia territory and defeated Dhan Manik, who there upon submitted and agreed to pay tribute and also offered two princesses to the Kachari king. As a hostage, he also gave his nephew and the heir-apparent, Jasa Manik, who was kept as a captive at Bikrampur later on renamed as Khaspur. The Kachari king celebrated this victory by assuming the title Arimardan alias Satrudaman.

           After the death of Dhan Manik who died soon, his nephew was released and installed as a king of Jaintia on a condition to recognise the Kachari king as his over lord. Jasa Manik resented this, but , unable to fight with the Kacharis, he with a view to bringing the Kacharis into arm conflict with the Ahoms, made an offer of a princess to the latter with a stipulation that she had to be escorted by a route passing through the Kachari territory. The Ahom king sought the permission of the Kacharis to escort the princess through the above said route. On being refused, the route was cleared by force and the princess was escorted to the Ahom territory.

          After this no incident is recorded between the two kingdoms, and nothing is known about the nature of relation till the beginning of the 18th century when after the sack of Maibong by the Ahoms, the Kachari king Tamaradhvaj fled southward to Bikrampur in the plains of Cachar and sent an appeal for immediate help to Ramsingh, the Raja of Jaintia. Accordingly, Ramsingh made preparation and collected his troops, but before his march he was intimated by the Kachari king of the withdrawal of his earlier request for help, as the Ahom forces had withdrawn due to sickness at Maibong. Ramsingh, intending to take advantage of the distress of the Kachari king proceeded with this object and brought Tamaradhvaj under his power and took him to Jaintiapur. The Kachari king, however, sent messages to the Ahoms for help, which was not refused. A strong force was sent by the Ahom who captured both the princes and brought them to their kingdom.

(c) MODERN PERIOD :

Kacharis' relation with the British :

Our knowledge regarding the history of Cachar during the 18th century is very meagre. The section of Kachari tribe who moved into the Surma Valley or remained in the hills of North Cachar was very small and in 1901 there were only 8,708 Kacharis in the hills and 4,152 in the plains of the district. They moved across the border from Sylhet and refugees poured into the district from Manipur ; but even in 1835 the total population of the Cachar plains was only estimated at 50,000 souls. The Kachari Raja seems in fact to have sunk to the position of the petty ruler of an unimportant tribe living in the remote jungle tract. The first connection of the British with the district dates from 1762, when Mr. Verelst marched from Chittagong with five companies on foot, to assist the Manipur Raja who had been driven from his throne by the Burmese. They reached Khaspur and remained there for nearly a year, but were prevented by difficulties of the country from going further, and they were finally recalled. The next historically important fact was the formal conversion of Raja Krishna Chandra to Hinduism in 1790 A.D. This king also came into hostile relations with the Ahoms chiefly because of the fact that during this period many Moamarias and Ahom subjects took shelter in his country, and the Kachari king refused to send them back to the Ahom kingdom, as directed by the Ahom ruler Kamaleswar Sinha. the war lasted from 1803 to 1805 where the Ahoms defeated the combined forces of the Kacharis and the Moamarias.

          When Krishna Chandra died in 1813 he was succeeded by his brother Gobinda Chandra. He was soon confronted with difficulties. Kohi Dan, a table servant of the late Raja, who was appointed as the incharge of the northern hilly tract, soon rebelled against Gobinda Chandra and wanted to form an independent kingdom. Gobinda Chandra managed to take him to Dharampur, where he was assassinated. The rebellion was continued by Kohi Dan's son Tularam, himself a servant of the Raja, who thinking that his own life was in danger fled to hills and successfully resisted all attempts to reduce him. Gobinda Chandra was deprived of the northern portion of his domonion. Soon after Gobinda Chandra came under the British protection. though he made repeated attempt to expel, Tularam remained in the possession of the hills. the latter was now growing old, and in 1828, he entrusted the command Sambhudan's rising in 1882, a curious outbreak occured which resulted in the death of the district officer. the incident is described by W.W. Hunter, as quoted by Mr. B.C. Allen.13

13. B.C. Allen : Assam District GAZETTEER, Vol.I. Cachar. Calcutta 1905. p.35
 

Formation of North Cachar Hills Sub-division :

In 1839, the portion of North Cachar, not included in Tularam's domonion, and the country inhabited by the Karbis formed part of the Nowgong district. In 1853 North, Cachar was formed into a separate sub-division with its headquarter at Asalu, and in the following year Tularam's territory was added to it. In the same year four mauzas, comprising the estate known as "Mahal Jamunamukh" were transferred to this sub-division from Nowgong district. The Sub-division was then administered by a Junior Assistant Commissioner, as defined in the Assam code.

         In 1867 the Sub-division of North Cachar was abolished. A portion of it including Asalu transferred to South Cachar, but the Naga Hills and a large part of the Karbi Anglong were constituted into a separate district. Nothing was done until 1880, when the North Cachar Hills were formed into a Sub-division of Cachar district with its headquarter at Khanjung (Gunjong) and placed in-charge of an Assistant Superintendent of Police. In 1884, the Frontier Tracts Regulation (11 of 1880) was extended to North Cachar Hills and in 1895, head-quarter of this Subdivision was transferred to Haflong.

Kachari Administration :

Neither their own records nor the Assamese Chronicles throw much light on the Kachari system of administration. From their exchange of envoys with the Ahom court and diplomatic correspondences we have a side-light on their political relations with the neighbouring kingdom of the time. When the British occupied the are in 1830, they found that the administration was not uniform. The Kachari king was assisted by a gradation of officers, notable among whom were the Bar Bhandari in-charge of law and justice, the Senapati or the Commander-in-chief of the army, and the Purohita who was required to perform sacrifices for the safety of the king and his subjects. The people who were under their direct control consisted of the Kacharis, Kukis, Nagas and other hill tribes. So far as the Bengali inhabitants were concerned, they were almost free from the ordinary laws of the Kachari administration.

        The system of land tenure and revenue administration was but peculiar in so far as it pertained to the said Bengali settlers. According to this, and was held by a number of persons, called a Khel, which was but the unit of an agricultural community. Its members were not connected by any caste or creed. This principle of voluntary association was in course of time extended to commercial enterprise as well. Whatever the nature of associations for common partnership, whether in respect of land or any commercial undertaking, the individuals had their common obligations to the royal power. These consisted of the payment of revenue and the supply of labour to the king. Revenue was collected by the king's agent called Muktiar.

       In course of time a number of Khels joined together to form what is called a raj. The representatives of these large unions were called Choudhury, Mauzadar, Laskar, Bara-Bhuyan, etc., according to their social status. These titles were hereditary. Each Khel-Muktiar paid land revenue of each Khel to the royal agent, called Raj-Muktiar. this peculiar system of revenue administration made royal influence almost ineffective in so far as the said Khels and unions were concerned.

      The king was at the apex of the Judicial Administration. He exercised judicial prerogative in all serious offences like murder. The Bar Bhandari, the Raj Pandit and the Bar Majumdar constituted a Judicial Committee, and advised the king in matters of capital panishment involving a Bengali. Certain judicial powers were allowed to be exercised by certain leading persons as well. The chief criminal power was vested by the king in the Majumdar, who, by virtue of his office became the head Majumdar. while the fiscal and criminal administration was thus provided for with the minimum of royal interference, civil disputes were settled without any interference whatever. Even in fiscal and criminal cases, references or appeals were made by the local judicial bodies or representatives of the king where disputes arose between the Khels. the king passed his decree in consulation with his Pandit.

3. Formation of the district :

The district of the United Mikir and North Cachar Hills came into being on 17th November, 1951 and was therefore the youngest district of Assam. it was constituted under the Assam Regulation X of 1951, vide Notification TAD/R/31/50/190 dated 27.8.1951 and covered an area of 5,883 sq. miles or 15,217.0sq. kilometres with a population of 2,79,726. It was composed of two sub-divisions known as Mikir Hills sub-division, and North Cachar Hills sub-division, constituted out of a considerable portion of the districts of Sibsagar and Nowgong, formerly known as Mikir Hills Tract and Bhoi area of United Khasi Jaintia Hills sub-division has been carved out of the plain district of Cachar.

             Each of the sub-divisions under the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India was conferred the status of an autonomous district, with separate administrative bodies known as Mikir Hills District Council and North Cachar Hills District Council. Each of the district Council is composed of 16 members, out of which 12 are elected by adult franchise and four are nominated by the Governor with a view to providing representation to other minorities inhabiting the autonomous district. Extent of the autonomy given to the Council is very wide and almost covers every aspect of life. For better administration and expediency the two autonomous districts have been brought under one administrative whole having two District Councils independent of each other, while for general administrative purpose there is one Deputy Commissioner of the district with its headquarter at Diphu. Under the Five Year Plans adequate measures have been taken for the development of the district in all spheres including agriculture, education, health and communications.14

14.In 1970. vide Govt, of Assam's Gazette Notifications Nos. AAP/134/68/22 dated 11th February, 1970 andAAP/134/68/19 dated 30th January, 1970-- the erstwhile district of United Mikir and North Cachar Hills was bifurcated into two separate districts of Mikir Hills and North Cachar Hills with district headquarters at Diphu and Haflong respectively. Since 1976 the district, erstwhile known as Mikir Hills, has been renamed Karbi Anglong.