PETROLEUM   | NATURAL GAS QUARTZ | CLAY | FELSPAR | IRON ORE  | COAL | LIMESTONE  | WATER RESOURCES | FOREST RESOURCES | POWER | POWER PROJECTS | HYDEL PROJECTS

 

 

NATURAL RESOURCES OF ASSAM
 

Assam is one of the most vibrant states in the North Eastern region of India. The state is full of most of the important natural resources that attracts the attention of many investors to set up their production and manufacturing units in the state. Assam is blessed with abundant river waters, huge hydrocarbon potential, large quantities of low ash coal resources, limestone and dolomite deposits as well as a few other unexplored minerals. The exploitation of minerals in the State mainly comprises of petroleum (crude), natural gas (utilized), coal,  limestone and minor minerals. Petroleum (crude) is the principal mineral produced in the State. During the 2006-07 the production of two major minerals, i.e. Petroleum (crude) and Natural Gas (Utilized) have recorded a fall in production by 2.12 percent and 14.2 percent respectively. However, the production of two other major minerals of
the state, i.e. coal and Limestone has shown substantial increase by 25.1 percent and 25.6 percent during the same period.

Coal, petroleum and natural gas, limestone and minor minerals are in abundance in Assam. Tertiary coal occurs in North Cachar Hills,Sivasagar and Lakhimpur districts. Assam coal is friable in nature and has a high sulphur ontent. It is mainly utilised by local railways,steamers, and hydro power stations. Low moisture, low volatile cooking coal has been discovered in Hallidayganj Singrimari area.Deposits of banded magnetic quartzite occurs in Kamrup and Goalpara districts, Limestone occurs in Lakhimpur, North Cachar Hills, Karbi Anglong, Nagaon and Sivasagar districts. Kaolin is found in Karbi Anglong and Lakhimpur district. The Digboi oil fields in Lakhimpur district and Moran and Rudrasagar oil fields in Sivasagar district are the major source of oil and gas. Hydrocarbons were struck in Borsilla,Changmaigaon, Kurgaon and Rajgarh in the past. Sillimanite bearing rocks occur in Karbi Anglong district. Assam continued to be the 3rd largest producer of Petroleum (crude) and natural gas in the country accounting for 16 % and 8% respectively of the total production of this mineral in the country.

The index of mineral production in Assam (Base 1993-94=100) was 95.33 in 2006-07 as against 94.91 in the previous year. The table given bellow shows the production of Minerals in Assam during last three years.

 

Mineral Production in Assam :

Year

Coal(000 MT)

Crude oil (000 MT)

Natural Gas (utilized) (MCM)

Lime stone (000 MT)

2002-2003

629

4746

1909

552

2003-2004

738

4571

1999

460

2004-2005

581

4702

2037

419

2005-2006

986

4429

2195

410

2006-2007 (P)

1058

4426

2238

296

Source: Statistical Hand book, Assam 2007

 

 

Index of Mineral Production in Assam :

Minerals

2003-2004

2004-2005

2005-2006

2006-2007

Coal

61.45

48.39

82.10

88.09

Natural (Utilised)

160.82

163.91

176.59

180.05

Petroleum (Crude)

91.42

94.00

88.58

88.62

Lime Stone

155.93

141.79

138.98

100.34

All Minerals

95.31

97.19

94.91

95.33

Source: Statistical Hand book, Assam 2007:

 

 

 

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PETROLEUM:

Assam is well blessed by nature in respect of oil, which is termed as ‘liquid gold'. The story of Assam oil goes back as early as to the time of Lieut R. Wilcox, who recorded the occurrence of oil seepage in the Burhi-Dihing at Sapkhong in 1825. Later on, drilling was started in 1889 at Digboi. During the pre-independence period the quest for oil has been carried out by the ONGC. During the second quarter of the present century, a considerable amount of prospecting and drilling had been done by the Assam Oil Company Limited. Oil has been discovered also in Naharkatiya-Hugrijan Areas, namely Dihing Valley in 1938, Moran in 1956, Lakwa In 1965, Rudrasagar In1961, Geleki 1968, Borholla in 1970, Amguri in 1971, Changpang in 1973, Charali in 1974, Demulgaon in 1977, Changmaigaon in 1984,Kuargaon 1985, Namti in 1986, and a gas firld at Adamtola in 1989.The Naharkatiya-Hugrijan areas in the Dihing Valley located 40 km south-west from digboi have the reserves of 45 million tonnes of oil and 210 billion cubic metres of gas. In the Lakwa and Geleki field, the Tipam sandstones contain thick sands which are expected to become good producers. Besides these fields, oil is also located at Borholla,Charali and Demulgaon.

Presently in Assam, the refineries located at Digboi, Guwahati and Bongaigaon are in operation, while the fourth one at numaligarh is nearing completion. The digboi refinery is the oldest refinery in India.The digboi plant has an annual capacity of 0.50 million tonnes of crude which is being expanded to 0.65 million tonnes. The Guwahati Refinery has a capacity of 1 million tonnes while the Bongaigaon refinery with a capacity of 1.35 million tonnes, is being expanded to 2.35 million tonnes. The fourth refinery at Numaligarh will have a capacity of 3 million tonnes per year.

In 1985-86, Assam produced 4.97 million tonnes of crude oil. In that year Assam's production accounted for 16 p.c. of the national tatal production of 30.16 million tonnes.

During 1994-95, Assam's crude oil production was 4.808 million metric tonnes. Of this, 2.195 million metric tonnes and 2.070 million metric tonnes were produced by OIL INDIA LIMITED and OIL & NATURAL GAS CORPORATION respectively, and till 1996 February, ONGC produced 1.96 million metric tonnes.

The trend of crude oil production in Assam is as follows:

ASSAM: TREND OF CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION -

 

YEAR

PRODUCTION (in tonnes)

1936-64

924,000

1970-71

3,359,000

1980-81

1,709,000

1985-86

4,970,000

1990- 91

5,076,000

5,076,000

5,096,000

2002-03

4,746,000

2003-04

4,571,000

Source : (1.) Basic Statistical of NER, 1995-2002 (2.) Statiscal Handbook of Assam, 2002 & 2003
                 (3.) Economic survey

 

 

Assam, 2004-2005

The crude oil of the region is at present used in the refineries of Digboi, Noonmati (Guwahati), Bongaigaon Petro-Chemical Complex Ltd., Numaligargh and Barauni to produce Kerosene, Diesel, Petrol,wax, Paraffin,rease,Naptha, D.M.T. xylene, Synthetic fibre, Synthetic rubber, Plastic and various other by- products.

 

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NATURAL GAS:

Like petroleum, natural gas is a valuable source of power and various other chemical by-products. It is a gaseous mineral of organic origin lying locked underground. The gas contains a very high proportion of Methane (85%- 90%) and some proportion of Ethane (8%- 9%) ,Propane(2%-3.5%) and Butane(0.7%-1.7%).

Natural Gas is normally found to remain in association with Petroleum.But in certain places it may be found independently. The gas found with Petroleum is known as ‘associated natural gas', and that found independently is called ‘free natural gas'.

As Assam in rich in petroleum, so it is rich in natural gas. It is found in the Barail group of rocks (of Oligo-Miocene Periods) occuring at very high pressure and temperature.

In North-East India, natural gas is mostly found in Assam and Tripura.In Assam, almost all the petroleum producing areas of the upper Brahmaputra Rudrasagar, contain ‘associated natural gas'. Barak Valley, on the Valley, especially Naharkatiya,Moran,Lakwa and Brahmaputra Rudrasagar, contain ‘associated natural gas'. Barak Valley, on the other hand, contains ‘free natural gas' in the Adamtila structure at a place 60 km away from Silchar. OIL INDIA LIMITED and the ASSAM GAS AGENCY have discovered oil and gas fields near Arunachal in Dibrugarh district.

In 1991-92 Assam produced 2092 million cubic metres of natural gas,which rose from 2056 million cubic metres in 1985-86. This accounts for 25% of the total production of 8134 million cubic metres of gas in the country as a whole.

The trend of natural gas production is as follows:

ASSAM: TREND OF NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION -

 

Year

Production (Million Cubic Metres)

1971

980

1981

869

1085

751

1990

987

1995

1510

2001

2018

2002

1850

2003

1909

2004

1999

Source: (1). Basic statistical of NER, 1995, 2000, 02 & 03  (2). Economic Survey of Assam, 2005

 

 

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QUARTZ:

Quartz is commonly used in the glass and ceramic industries. Most of the quartz deposits occur in association with felspar.

 

Quartz deposits in Assam:

District

Name of the place & location

Reserve available in million tons

Name of the chemical compound & % content

Nagaon

Jiajuri Hill (92° 52' 55" to 92° 54' 15"E longitude and 26° 18' 0" to 26° 19' 0" N latitude) covering an area of 2.9 sq. km.

The possible reserve of sand mixed with clay is about 10 million tons. The friable Quartzite has 74 % of sand and 26 % of clay. Hence the sand reserve is 7.4 million tons and that of clay mixed with finer fractions of sand is 2.6 million tons.

SiO2 92.21 to 98.33< Al2O3 0.18 to 5.08< Fe2O3 0.008 to0.79< TiO2 Trace to 0.38< CaO Trace to o.40< MgO Trace to 0.12< K2O 0.16 to 1.69< Na2O 0.03 to 0.27< FeO Trace

Nagaon

Thanajuri Hills (92° 48' 40" to 92° 50' 35" E longitude and 26° 12' 35" to 26° 13' 10"N latitude) in the northern part of Mikir Hills plateau and southern part of Nowgaon district.

The possible reserve of glass sand is about 1.788 million tons.

SiO2 97.47 to 98.93< Al2O3 0.57 to 0.97< Fe2O3 0.06 to 0.20< TiO2 Trace to 0.24< CaO Trace to0.15< MgO Trace to 0.12< K2O 0.13 to 0.33< Na2O 0.02 to 0.03< FeO Trace

Barhola deposit, occurs friable feldspathic quartzite, covering an area of 0.595 sq. km.

The possible reserve of Kaolinized quartzite is 1.25 million tons.

SiO2 97.47< Al2O3 0.97< Fe2O3 0.36< TiO2 0.24< CaO 0.15< MgO Trace< K2O 0.33< Na2O 0.03< FeO Trace

Chapanala deposit occurs friable, kaolinized quartzite, covering an area of 0.373 sq. km.

The possible reserve of friable quartzite without separation is 3.5 million tons.

N.A.

 

Physical properties of Quartz:

1. Jiajuri Hill

The grained size of silica sands ranges from 2 mm to 0.062 mm. About 75 % of the grains conform to I.S. specifications specified for glass sand quality. The colour of the quartzite improves with depths.

2. Thanajuri Hills

The quartzite contains about 90 % sand and 10 % clay.

3. Barhola deposits

The colour of the quartzite is white to grey white and frequently yellow, brown with iron stains.

4. Chapanala deposits

The colur of the quartzite is white, grey white or buff. It is fine to medium grained.

 

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CLAY :

The state of Assam is the rich storehouse of clay mineral. Scientific surveys indicate the sporadic occurrences of china clay, fire clay,fuller's earth (white clay) and sedimentary clay deposits throughout Assam.

 

(a). White coloured plastic china clay deposits:

 

District

Name of the place and location

Reserve available

Name of the chemical compound & % content

Karbi Anglong

Sheelveta(93° 18' 25" E longitude & 26° 8' 35"N latitude) covering an area of 0.25 sq.km.

The clay content is 27 % and the total reserve is 0.0027 million tonnes

SiO2 44.64 Al2O3 37.49 Fe2O3 1.98 TiO2 1.01 CaO 0.16 MgO Trace K2O3 0.05 Na2 O 0.03 L.O.I. 14.20

Silanijan(93° 47' 35"E longitude & 26° 19' 30"N latitude) covering an area of 5 sq.km.

The reserve of crude china clay in four blocks is found to be 0.17 million tonnes.

SiO2 45.9 Al2 O3 33.5 Fe2O3 1.5 TiO2 Trace CaO 2.0 MgO 0.90 L.O.I. 15.7

Karbi Anglong

Deopani (26° 13' 42" to 26° 14' 26" N latitude & 93° 45' 20"to 93° 46' 0" longitude)

The total reserve of block 1 and of block 2 is .15 million tons.

SiO2 43.7 to 48.89 Al2O3 37.10 to 41.62 Fe2O3 0.30 to 1.90 TiO2 Trace to 0.64 L.O.I. 12.35 to 14.53 CaO Trace to 0.64 MgO Trace to 0.90 Na2O Trace to 0.03 K2O 0.03 to 1.32

 

(b). White fire clay deposits:

 

Name of the place and locaton

Reserve available

Name of the chemical compound & % content

Sheelveta (93° 17' 30" to 93° 18' 50" E & 25° 55' 30" to 26° 0' 30" N ) covering 1.82 km.

The possible reserve is 7.6 million tons.

SiO2 42.45 to 44.72 Al2O3 35.46 to  36.29 Fe2O3 1.21 to 2.82 TiO2 1.27 to 1.60 CaO 2.02 to 3.43 MgO 0.54 tp 0.61 L.O.I. 13.50 to 14.63

Kailajan(93° 34' 0" E to 26° 0' 0" N) covering an area of 0.21 sq. km.

The possible reserve is 1.67 million tons.

N.A.

 

(c). Fuller's earth (white clay) deposits:

 

District

Name of the place and locaton

Reserve available

Name of the chemical compound & % content

Nalbari

Scattered deposits of fuller's earth occurs along the bank of Pagladia river at Subankhata and Bhutan Khuti areas (91° 25' 0" E to 91° 27' 46" N) and (26° 47' 48" to 26° 50' 0" N).

The inferred reserve of fuller's earth is 13.10 million tons in Subankhata Khuti areas and 5.69 million tons in Bhutan

SiO2 53.28 to 77.12 Al2O3 6.75 to 18.54 Fe2O3 6.31 to 11.74 TiO2 0.78 to 1.26 CaO 0.57 to 1.816 MgO 0.74 to 1.57

 

(d). White coloured sedimentary clay deposits:

 

District

Name of the place and locaton

Reserve available in million tonnes

Cachar

Irangmara (92° 44' 44" to 92° 45' 0" E longitude and24° 40' 0" to 24° 40' 12" N latitude)is situated at the southern part of Silchar. Irangmara is 22 km. from Silchar circuit house.

The probable reserve is 0.0216 million tons.

 

Bilaipur (92° 43' 8" E longitude & 24° 40' 0" N latitude)

The detailed investigation is not carried out.

Derby (92° 47' 0" E longitude & 24° 40' 0" N latitude), 1.5 km. west from Derby T.E. factory.

The detailed investigation is not carried out.

Barjalenga is situated at 1 km. South from Irangmara.

The probable reserve of clay is about 0.000192 milllion tons.

 

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FELSPAR:

Felspar which is commonly used in the glass and ceramic industries is not found in large quatities in the region. Felspar contains large crystals and deposits of good quality felspar are found in the Kamrup district.

Felspar Deposits in Assam:

 

District

 

Name of the place and location

Reserve available

Name of the chemical compound & % content

Kamrup

 

Hahim (25° 31' 30" N & 91° 31' 30" E) is 70 km away from Guwahati.

The possible reserve is estimated at 0.00245 million tons.

SiO2 64.52 to 69.58 R2O3 19.05 to 25.04 Fe2O3 0.07 to 0.13 Al2O3 14.97 to 18.92 CaO 0.17 to 0.22 K2O 9.23 to 10.58 NaO 4.03 to 5.41

 

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IRON ORE:

The iron ore deposits so far explored in Assam are found to contain a low proportion of iron. The thickness ranges from 30-74 metres.Besides, a very large economically viable quantity of ore has also not been found.

Iron ore Deposits in Assam:

District

Name of the place & location

Reserve available


Name of the chemical compound & % content

Goalpara

Chandardinga (26° 12' 30" N: 90° 20' 30" E) is located 2 km away from Salkocha Inspection Bunglow. The nearest Railway Station is Kokrajhar, around 32 km.away from the site. .

The total reserve is 10.8 million tons.

SiO2 14.46 to 61.20 Fe2O3 33.42 to 66.54 FeO 1.15 to 19.89 Al2O3 4.41 CaO 0.22 MgO 0.60 Total Fe 46.45 P 0.073 S 0.16

Lengupara is connected with Agia-Lakhipur road by a fair weather road and is situated at a distance of 15 km. west of Agia.

The total reserve is 7.5 million tons.

SiO2 20.36 to 60.08 Fe2O3 7.29 to 68.47 FeO 0.14 to 12.68 Al2O3 0.16 to 22.60 TiO2 Trace to 5.04 CaO Trace to 14.26 MgO Trace to 8.08 P2O2 0.21 to 3.66 Total Fe 0.40 to 50.44

Kumri is connected with Pancharatna by a fair weather road and is situated at a distance of 6 km. west of Pancharatna. The nearest Railway Station is Jogighopa.

The total reserve is 1.64 million tons.

SiO2 29.0 to 39.92 Fe2O3 22.79 to 47.32 FeO 11.71 to 26.79 Al2O3 0.56 to 5.02 TiO2 Trace to 0.04 CaO 0.18 to 3.33.20 P2O2 0.19 to 0.97 Total Fe 37.52 to 45.24

 

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COAL:

Assam coal is friable in nature and has a high sulphur content. It is mainly utilised by local railways, steamers and hydro power stations.Coal is found in Koilajan, Umrangshu and Khota-Arda in the Hills District of Assam.

Coal deposits in Assam :

District

Name of the place & location

Area covered

Reserve available

Name of the chemical compound & % content

Dibrugarh

Makum coal field includes four major mines:. (1) Namdong Colliery (27º 0'18" N: 95º 0' 51" E) on the western end. (2) Borgolai Colliery (27º 0' 16" N: 95º 0' 51" E) at the central portion. (3) Ledo colliery (27º 0' 18" N: 95º 0' 51" E ) at the central portion. (4) Tippong colliery (27º 0' 18" N: 95º 0' 5" E) on the eastern extremity of the coal field

Covering an area of 29 km. long and 4.6 km wide totalling an area of

A reserve of 272.3 million ton estimated by the Assam Railway and Trading Co. within the lease hold area of 25.9 sq.km.

Moisture 2 to 9 Ash 0.8 to 8.4 Volatile matter 38 to 51 Fixed carbon 42 to 60 Sulphur 1 to 4 Calorific value - 12500 to 15000 kcal/kg

Dibrugarh & Sibsagar

Dilli-Joypur, extending over to Dibrugarh and Sibsagar district. The area under exploration is bounded by the latitude 27º 5' 0"N to 27º 8' 30" N and longitude 95º 15' 0" to 95º 22' 0"

Covering an area of 40 km. long and 0.50 km wide.

The proven coal reserve in Dilli coalfield is about 24.4 million ton, while another 71 million ton of coal is expected within leasehold area of Joypur Colliery.

Moisture 3.9 to 5.2 Ash 6 to 22 Volatile matter 34 to 41 Fixed carbon 39.8 to 47.5 Sulphur 2 Calorific value - 5240 to 7950 kcal/kg

Tinsukia

Saraipung-Tarajan is located 5 km. south west of Bhadoi Panch Ali of Tinsukia district.

Coal occurs intermittently along the strike length of 7 km..

The total probable reserve is estimated to be around 0.5 million ton.

Moisture 6.5 Ash 4.7 Volatile matter 44.2 Fixed carbon 44.8

Karbi Anglong

Koliajan, ( 26º 8' 0"N: 39º 34' 0" E)

A thick coal seam of 180 meter occurs at Koliajan, Karbi Anglong

The total possible reserve is estimated as 0.50 million ton.

Moisture 8.82 Ash 8.24 Volatile matter 50.76 Fixed carbon 32.16 Sulphur 2 Calorific value - 7940 to 8570 kcal/kg

Sheelvetta

The area of deposit is 1.5 sq. km.

The total possible reserve is estimated as 0.15 million ton.

Moisture 9.5 Ash 3.08 to 7.9 Volatile matter 50.4 Fixed carbon 32.4 Calorific value -7480 kcal/kg

N.C. Hills

Khota Arda, ( 25° 40' 50" to 25° 41' 55" N: 92° 54' 35" to 92° 55' 40"E )

Occurs over an area of 1.50 sq. km. The thickness of two coal seams found varies form 0.50 meter to 1.0 meter.

The total probable reserve is estimated around 2.28 million ton.

Moisture 10.6 to 19.6 Ash 3.8 to 20.3 Volatile matter 34.8 to 44.7 Fixed carbon 34.22 to 39

Dithor, located near Umrangshu, N.C.Hills. (25 ° 26' 32" to 25° 27' 30" N: 92° 43' 42" to 92° 45' 22"E)

One coal seam of varying thickness occurs in the area.

The reserve of the coal is about 0.50 million ton.

Moisture 6.9 to 8.3 Ash 15 to 79.6 Volatile matter 32.9 to 40.7 Fixed carbon 24.6 to 41.8

Garampani , entire deposit are falls within the Kopili reservoir area.

Only one coal seam having thickness varies from 0.30 m to 1.5 m.

Not available

Moisture 5.9 Ash 18.3 Volatile matter 36.3 Fixed carbon 39.6

Dhubri

Singrimari,Halliday Gunj

(98° 45' 6" E: 25° 44' 0"N)

Occurrence of coal extends over a length of 1 km. and width of 400 meter.

Not available

Moisture 33 Ash 12.77 Volatile matter 18.5 Fixed carbon 65.5 Calorific value- 6940 kcal/kg

 

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LIMESTONE:

Limestone is an important mineral which is used in the manufacture of cement, as flux in iron and steel production, and as raw materials for chemical industries. There are several opportunities for investment in this area. Assam holds great potential for the rational utilisation of limestone in various industries.

Limestone deposits in Assam:

District

Name of the place & location

Reserve available

Name of the chemical compound & % content

Karbi Anglong

Koilajan Deposit linked with Manja Tinali on N.H. 36 by 15 km. long gravel road. (26° 8¢ 0" N and 93° 34¢ 0" E).

State Directorate with the help of IBM proved a reserve of 30 million tons of cement grade lime stone.

N.A.

Dilai parbat deposit, an area about 1.6 km. east of Koilajan.(25 ° 49¢ 54 ² N and 26 ° 1¢ 0² N: 93 ° 34¢ 40² E and 93 ° 35¢ 50² E

Proved of 17.98 million tons of lime stone in East block and 11.43 million tons in North block

CaO 49.72

MgO 1.04

Karbi Anglong

Sainilango at 28 km. East of Bokajan.

The proved reserve of 0.626 million tonnes,investigated by CCI.

CaO 43.0

MgO 1.5

Sheelbhetta deposit, about 40-km. from Diphu railway station. (26° 0¢ 0² N: 93° 17¢ 25² E and 93° 20¢ 5² E)

The reserve is 2 million tons.

CaO 45

Mg O 0.20 to 1.01 Fe 2O3 1.69 to 6.0 Al 2O3 0.20 to 1.22 A.I. 3.0 to 15.07

North.Cachar Hills

Panimur deposit is 40 km. away from Lonka railway station.( 25° 44¢ 15² N : 92° 49¢ 45² E )

The reserve is 3.2 million tons.

N.A.

Garampani (near 4 km. post, Garampani-Lanka road). (25° 30¢ 0² N to 25° 30¢ 52² N: 92° 39¢ 0² Eto 92 ° 39¢ 45² E)

The proved reserve is 20.6 million tons.

CaO 47.86 MgO 1.60

Tumbung deposit, about 10 km. away from Garampani towards Garampani coal field.(25° 28¢ 45² N: 92° 35¢ 35² E)

A reserve of 4.5 million tons cement grade is proved.

CaO 42.9 Fe2O3 3.4

North.Cachar Hills

11th km. Umrangshu deposit , 2 km. away from Umrangshu town towards Garampani.(25° 31¢ 15² N to 25° 32¢ 20² N : 92° 43¢ 20² E to 92° 44¢ 35² E)

The total proved reserve of cement grade is 6.4 million tons.

CaO 47.42 MgO 2.17

13th km. Umrangshu high grade deposit, 13 km. post on Garampani- Lanka road. (25° 28¢ 45² N: 88 ° 35¢ 31² E)

The proved reserve is 0.8 million tons.

CaO 48 to 53.29 Fe2O3 0.39 to 2.19

New Umrangshu deposit, near 18-km. post of Garampani-Lanka road. (25° 31¢ 0² N to 25° 33¢ 0² N: to 92° 46¢ 0² E to 92° 49¢ 0² E)

The possible reserve is 365 million tons. *

N.A.

 

* However, the whole area of New Umrangshu deposit is divided in to a number of blocks. They are

       •16th km. block

       • A.I.D.C. block

       • A.M.D.C. block

       • High grade block

       • South block

The proved reserve is 184 million tons.

 

Name of the place & location

Reserve available

Name of the chemical compound & % content

16th km. block,occurs near 16 km. post on Garampani-Lanka road.

The limestone is 80 meter thick. The total proved reserve is 44 million tons.

CaO 46.84 MgO 2.15

Assam Industrial Development Corporation (A.I.D.C) block, ocuurs in the central portion of the New Umrangshu deposit.

The proved reserve is 181 million tons.

CaO 47.08

MgO 1.31

Assam Mineral Development Corporation (A.M.D.C) block

The proved reserve is 70 million tons.

CaO 47.50

MgO 1.48

High grade block

The total reserve is 4.56 milion tons

CaO 48.85

MgO 1.02

South block

The proved reserve is 60 million tons.

CaO 46.50

MgO 2.08

Juripahar deposit (25° 32¢ 20² N to 25° 34¢ 40² N: 92° 46¢ 10² E to 92° 48¢ 10² E)

 

 

CaO 45

MgO 1.68

 

 

 

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WATER RESOURCES:

Hydrogeology

Hydrogeologically the state can be divided into three units namely consolidated formation, semi consolidated formation and unconsolidated formation. More than 75% of the state is underlain by unconsolidated formation comprising of clay, silt, sand, gravel,pebble and boulders. The Bhabar belt is about 11 to 15 km wide; the tubewells yield 27 to 59 m3/hr in this zone. The Tarai zone follows immediately down slope of the Bhabar zone where the yield of the wells ranges between 80-240 m3/hr. The flood plains follow the Tarai in Brahmaputra valley where the shallow tubewells yield between 20-50 m3/hr and deep tubewells between 150-240 m3/hr. In the semi consolidated formations of Cachar district, the yield of the tubewell ranges between 50 to 100 m3/hr.

 

Ground Water Scenario of Assam At A Glance:

Area (Sq.km)

78,438

Physiography

  • Brahmaputra Valley.

  • The Central Assam Ranges.  
  • Barak Valley.   

Drainage

Brahmaputra Basin with sub basin of
Subansiri, Jia Bharali, Badeng-Pubnoi, Dhansiri, Manas, Champamati Kalang.
Meghna Basin with sub basin of Barak river

Rainfall

2262.95 mm with 144 rainy days

Total Districts / Blocks

23 districts / 219 Blocks

 

GROUND WATER EXPLORATION/SOURCES FINDINGS:

Dynamic Resources

Annual Replenishable Ground water Resource

27.23 BCM

Net Annual Ground Water Availability

24.89 BCM

Annual Ground Water Draft

5.44 BCM

Stage of Ground Water Development

22 %

Developmental Monitoring

Over Exploited

NIL

Critical

NIL

Semi- critical

NIL

Exploratory Tube wells Constructed (as on 31.03.2009)

336

No. of ground water observation wells
 

381

Artificial Recharge to Ground Water (AR)

  • Feasible AR structures:

250 Check Dams, 500 weirs, 1000 Gabion structures, 250 development of springs 600 RWH in Urban Areas

Ground Water Quality Problems

Contaminants

Districts affected (in part)

Fluoride (>1.5 mg/l)

Goalpapra, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong, Nagaon,

Iron (>1.0 mg/l)

Cachar, Darrang, Dhemaji, Dhubri, Goalpapra, Golaghat, Hailakandi, Jorhat, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong, Karimganj, Kokrajhar, Lakhimpur, Morigaon, Nagaon, Nalbari, Sibsagar, Sonitpur

Arsenic (>0.05 mg/l )

Dhemaji

 

Enactment of Ground Water Bill to regulate and control the development of ground water:

"The Assam Ground Water Bill" has been prepared by the Government of Assam to regulate and
control the development of ground water, which has been referred to Law Department for vetting. Necessary action is being taken for finalization.

Inclusion of Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting (RTRWH) in building by laws:

To be included.

Central Ground Water Authority:

Areas Notified for Regulation of ground water development

NIL

Mass Awareness Programmes (as on 31.03.2009)

14

Water Management Training Programme (as on 31.03.2009)

10

 

Achievement of Water Resources Department in Assam :

Item

Achievement

Unit

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

Up to 31.03.06

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Embankment Including Retirement and Raising Strengthening

Km.

1.10

0.75

19.04

8.90

4488.44

Drainage Channel

Km.

Nil

Nil

6.00

Nil

856.69

Protection and anti erosion

No

4

2

7

3

697

Major Sluice

No

Nil

Nil

1

Nil

86

Benefited Area

Lakh Hect.

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

16.19

Source : Water Resources Department, Assam.

 

Ground Water Resource and Utilisable Potential:

District

Ground water resource (MCM) Dynamic

Utilisable Ground Water Resource for Irrigation (MCM)

Utilisable Ground Water Resource for drinking
allied (MCM)

Gross Draft (MCM)

Balance Available (MCM)

State of Ground Water Dev.(%)

1

2

3

4

5

(3-5)=6

7=[(5/3) x 100]

Barpeta

1161

987

174

56

931

5.68

Bongaigaon

591

502

89

25

477

4.98

Cachar

817

694

123

1

693

0.15

Darrang

1407

1196

211

73

1123

6.10

Dhemaji

1660

1411

249

44

1367

3.11

Dhubri

1300

1105

195

64

1041

5.79

Dibrugarh

1635

1390

245

41

1349

2.94

Goalpara

495

421

74

20

401

4.75

Golaghat

1794

1525

269

42

1483

2.75

Hailakandi

98

83

15

3

80

3.61

Jorhat

1461

1242

219

35

1207

2.81

Karbi Anglong

584

49

88

1

495

0.20

Kamrup

1229

1045

184

71

974

6.80

Karimganj

133

113

20

4

109

3.54

Kokrajhar

1580

1343

237

35

1308

2.60

Morigaon

321

273

48

43

230

15.75

Nagaon

935

795

140

126

669

15.84

Nalbari

639

543

96

37

506

6.81

N.C.Hills

607

516

91

1

515

0.19

North Lakhimpur

1167

992

175

31

961

3.12

Sonitpur

1615

1373

242

110

1263

8.01

Sibsagar

1658

1409

249

35

1374

2.48

Tinsukia

1832

1557

275

46

1511

2.95

MCM: Million cubic metre
Data Source: Central Ground Water Board, Report-1981

 

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FOREST RESOURCES:

Forests provide numerous natural resources for the industry but they are not seen as the source of revenue but rather the source of livelihood of the common populace. The idea is to harness the forest produce in a sustainable manner and find alternatives wherever possible.

Plywood, veneer, pulp and paper, safety match box making etc are the main forest based industries in the state of Assam. In fact, Plywood industry is one of the major industries after tea and petroleum. The State forest is the source of raw materials for the above industries.Timber, bamboo, cane etc are the main useful products from the
forests of Assam. For instance, Cane furniture of Assam was world famous but due to serious over exploitation it has become almost extinct. Assam has become a net importer of cane from an erstwhile exporter. Thus the main emphasis today is to meet the needs of people from alternative resources and revive forest based industries on sustainable models. This requires mass participation. Agar-wood, for example can provide rich dividends, if people can grow it as a crop.

Outturn of Forest Products

Name of F. P. & Unit

Year 2005-06

Timber (Logs) in Cu. Mt.

11,973

Fuel Wood in Cu. Mt.

510

Bamboo in 000 Nos.

5,467

Stone in Cu. Mt.

4.03.661

Sand in Cu. Mt.

99,273

Thatch in Bundles

18,88,000

Others in 000 Cu. Mt.

1,592

 

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POWER:

Power is the basic infrastructure requirement for the growth of industries as well as over all economy of the State. The Assam State Electricity Board (ASEB), which was constituted in 1958 under Electricity (Supply) Act 1948, has been taking prime responsibility of integrated power development of the State. In purpose of the electricity Act 2003 and part as a of the Assam Power Sector Development Programme, the Government of Assam has set in motion the process of unbundling the A.S.E.B. into five Government Companies. The five companies are- the Assam Power Generation Corporation Limited (GENCO), the Assam Electricity Grid Corporation Limited (TRANSCO), Upper Assam Electricity Distribution Company Limited (UA-DISCOM) for the areas of supply in the Upper Assam Region, the Central Assam Electricity Distribution Company Limited (CA--DISCOM) for the central areas and the Lower Assam Electricity Distribution Company Limited (LA-DISCOM) for the areas of supply
under the lower Assam Areas. These initiatives are in the interest of all the stakeholders in the electricity sector in the state, i.e. consumers, shareholders, suppliers, creditor, infrastructures builders and the Government of Assam.

The installed capacity of generating plants in the State has come down to 415.5 MW in 2006-07 from 574.4 MW during 2005-06. The following table shows the installed capacity of various generating plants during the year 2005-06 and 2006-07.

 

Generating Plants

2005-06

2006-07

1

Thermal (Coal/Oil)

300.000

60.000

2

Hydel

2.000

102.000

3

Gas

272.000

253.500

Total

574.400

415.500

Source: Economic Survey of Assam 2007-08

 

Generation of Electricity in Assam (In million unit):

A. Gross Unit Generated

 

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Thermal (Coil/Oil)

0.0

0.0

0.0

Hydel

0.0

0.0

15.438

Gas

756.435

808.047

852.101

Total

756.435

808.047

867.539

B. Net Unit Generated

Thermal (Coil/Oil)

0.0

0.0

0.0

Hydel

0.0

0.0

15.436

Gas

720.941

768.476

810.743

Total

720.941

768.476

826.179

Source: Economic Survey of Assam, 2007-08

Since the past several years, the overall power supply position in the State has not been much satisfactory. The power supply position in Assam under ASEB is shown below:

Requirement and shortage of electricity in Assam:

Item

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

Energy requirement (million unit)

3,415.317

3,500.000

3,657.000

3788.00

4216.00

Availability (MU)

3,301.588

3,304.737

3,240.217

3376.30

3536.90

Shortage (percent)

3.33

5.60

11

11

16

Peak demand (MW)

578.300

614.00

618.20

641.30

716.00

Peak demand met (MW)

519.300

468.000

466.20

59.30

576.00

Shortage (percent)

10.20

23.78

23

17

18

Source: Economic Survey of Assam, 2006-07

 

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POWER PROJECTS:

The state of Assam is endowed with huge power potential based on coal, oil, natural gas and water. The state has nearly 28 p.c. of the total hydel power potential of the country. Yet the state has nearly is lagging behind many other states of India in respects of installed power capacity as well as in per capita consumption of electricity.

Attempts have been made by the the state government and North-eatern Electric Power Corporation, sometimes with the help of the National Hydro-electric Power Corporation and the World Bank, to build power stations. But nothing much has so far materialized as construction of such stations need enormous capital. The natural gas
provides an easy source of power. Hence as many as 5 major projects have already taken up to produce electricity.
 
A brief description of some of the Power Projects has been given below.

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HYDEL PROJECTS:

1. Karbi-Lanpi Project:

This power project is at Amtereng in Karbi Anglong district. It is on the river Karbi-Lanpi. Its total power production capacity is 220 MW. It has been divided into following three divisions.

(A) Karbi-Langpi (L.B) project: 2*50 MW = 100 MW

(B) Karbi-Langpi (Intermediate stage) project: 2*30 MW = 60 MW

(C) Karbi-Langpi (Upper Stage) project: 2*30 MW = 60 MW

At present its two units are producing power. One unit has been producing power since December, 1989 and the other unit since march, 1990.

2. Kapili Hydel Project:

This power project is located in North Cachar Hills District at Umrangsu. It has two barrages and two power houses. One of the two Barrages is on the Kapili River and the other is on the Umrang river. The one is known as the Khangdong Barrage and the second one as the Umrang Barrage. Out of the two power houses one is at Khangdong and the other one is at Kapili. Its installed capacity is 150 MW.

Some of the Thermal Power Stations of Assam

1. Namrup Thermal Power Project:

This project located at Namrup in Dibrugarh district produces power from natural gas. This is the first of its kind in the whole of Asia. It has got 5 units. The first three units are having the power producing capacity of 23 MW each. Of the remaining two one has 12.5 MW and the other 30 MW capacity. Thus the total capacity comes to 111.5 MW.
This power project of Assam State Electricity Board uses natural gas supplied by the OIL INDIA LIMITED. Its construction work was completed in April 1965. It is supplying power to the grid of State electricity Board as well as the Namrup Fertilizer project.

2. Chandrapur Thermal Power Project:

This power project has been located at Chandrapur on the Kalang river at a distance of above 25 km from guwahati. The construction work of the first unit was completed in 1973. Its capacity is 30 MW. It uses Furnace oil/LSHS of Noonmati oil Refinery for producing power. The extension work of 2*30 MW unit of this project was completed in September 1979.

3. Lakwa Thermal Power Station:

This power project located at maibela in sibsagar district uses natural gas supplied by ONGC. It has three units of generators, each of 15 MW capacity. The project has got another 15 MW extension unit which was completed 1985. The construction work of the first, second and third units was completed in april 1981, 1982 and june 1983 respectively. Its total production capacity is 60 MW.

4. Bongaigaon Thermal Power Project:

This power project is located at Salekati 15 km to the west of bongaigaon. Its total capacity is 240 MW. This project uses coal brought from Raniganj coal fields of west Bengal.it supplies power to the A.S.E.B‘s power grid.

5. Bargolai Thermal Power Project:

This power station has been set up near Bargalai coalmines in the Margherita area. It produces power from the coal that contains more sulphur and less ash contents. It has got two generators capable of producing 30 MW of electricity each. So its total power generating capacity is 60 MW.

6. Kathalguri Thermal Power Project:

It has been constructed at Bakulani Village Near Kathalguri at a distance of 15 km from Duliajan oil town. Its production capacity is 270 MW. This project has 9 units, of which 6 are gas based each of which is of 30 MW capacity, and the other 3 are steam-based. Each of these has capacity of 30 MW. This project was established with the aid of Overseas Economic Fund (OECF) and Japanese Collaboration. It is using natural gas of Upper Assam oil fields.

7. Geleki Thermal Power Project:

This project has been set up at Geleki of Sibsagar district, with a production capacity of 8.10 MW. It has 3 units each having a generating capacity of 270 KW. It uses natural gas of local oil fields.

8. Amguri Thermal Power Project:

This large thermal power project has been set up at a place which is at a distance of 6 km. from Amguri in Sibsagar District. The total capacity of the project is 540 MW. It uses natural gas supplied by ONGC. It has been constructed by the Assam State Electricity Board with financial aid from the World Bank.