|Chapter- 1: General|
|Chapter- 2: History|
|Chapter- 3: People|
|Chapter- 4: Agriculture & Irrigation|
|Chapter- 5: Industries|
|Chapter - 6: Banking, Trade & Commerce|
The Freedom Movement :
Anti British movement-Later phase :
The question of revenue collections dominated the relationship between the Government and the people throughout the 19th century. The rule of the East India Company ended in 1858 and the whole of India came under the direct control of the British Crown. The assessment of land revenue was increased, and income tax, stamp duties, etc., were also imposed by the new administration. The Government carried on trade in opium and salt in the State and earned considerable profit thereby. The people of Assam who were not accustomed to payment of revenue in cash began to resent. The British Government undoubtedly introduced beneficial measures like abolition of cruel practices as chopping off ears, noses, abductions of young women, forced labour, etc., but the evils far out-weighed these few good measures, Thus in 1853, Moniram Dewan petitioned Mills.''Illustrious Sir, we are just now, as it were,in the belly of a tiger''. Moniram Dewan was responsible for associating Assam with the rebellion of 1857. Being disillusioned with the British he turned a rebel in 1857 when the class interest of a section of the Indian feudal class coincided with the broad national interests against foreign rule. The sepoys of Assam like infantry battalions both at Dibrugarh and Guwahati remained absolutely passive and strictly loyal to the British. The Commissioner of Assam in the middle of August 11857 got information from Holroyd, the intelligence Officer, that several officers of the Assam Light Infantry with the detachment at Golaghat had entered into a conspiracy with the young prince, Kandarpeswar. Major Jenkins lost non time and drew the attention of Government of India to the seriousness of the situation and urged it to despatch, as hurriedly as possible, European force to save the province from the revolutions. The simultaneous outbreak of the sepoys in scattered areas rendered it difficult to send reinforcements into Assam. To tide over the immediate crisis a small European force of 104 sea-men,half of them raw recruits, was despatched under Lieutenant Davis on board the Haroonghatta on Sept', 1857. Moran Dewan from Calcutta sent secret letters through rebel conveyers to individuals in Assam to win over these sepoys whose brethern in different parts of India fought the British. In Nagaon, Mr. Morton, the Principal Assistant, destroyed the bridges over the rivers Missa and Diju and cut off the communication with Jorhat lest the mutineers get into the district from that direction. Enthusiastic stories of the fall of British power in different parts caused a great deal of excitement among the hillmen as well. The people at large were in a discontented state,Though not organised. At such a time the Government tightened up security measures and enforced operation of Act XIV. A large number of arrests took place. The potential rebels were tired,many were executed while others were deported. Kandarpeswar Singha was arrested and despatched to Calcutta and kept confined as a state prisoner in Alipur. This was followed by the arrest of Moniram in Calcutta and his collaborators, both officials and non-officials, Dutiram Baruah, Mayaram Nazir, Marangikhowa Gohain, Bahadur Gaoburah, Shaikh Formud and several others. This ended the endeavours made by Moniram to overthrow the British Government in Assam. The great rebellion of 1857 left Assam without much convulsions. Queen Victoria's proclamation in 1858,ending the Company rule and establishing direct Government under the Crown promised to respect the rights of the native princes, but exception was made in the case of Assam and the wrong of 1838 was not undone. Struggle against expatriation's and for land reforms entered the countryside. The land revenue assessment which had remained unchanged for the last twenty to thirty years was enhanced in 1894 and as such the ryots of different places viz.,Rangia and Lashima in the Kamrup district and the ryots of Patharughat in the Mangaldoi district were the first to react against the enhancement of revenue of land. The aggrieved,both Hindus and Muslims,met in their Raijmel and protested against the new measure. Movement of a serious nature occurred for nearly two decades. The renaissance movement of the post 1857 period and the series of aggrarian outbreaks during the last four decades of the 19th century contributed to the growth of a conscious national movement for freedom from foreign rule.
Freedom Movement in the post – 1857 period :
The great rebellion of 1857 was directly responsible for the birth of the national movement in the country. The uprising of 1857 had imposed severe financial strain on the British Indian Government. The deficit in budget in 1858-59 compelled them to introduce new taxes as a result,on the advice of Jam es Wilson,in 1860,income-tax was introduced and this was extended in the following year to the province of Assam. New economic forces were brought into play and the new social forces though expressing themselves in their different ways,contributed to the growth of the conscious national forces. After 1857,the character of the struggle against the foreigner changed but the struggle was continued with renewed intensity depending upon the growth of consciousness from area to area,and Sabhas and Raijar mels became the most popular institution for solving all sorts of problem faced by the indigenous people of this State. The uprising at Phulguri was the earliest popular movement in Assam organized with the object to compelling the Government to yield to the will of the people by the withdrawal of unpopular measures of taxation. Though the movement failed,the precedent was not lost upon the people and was followed up in other parts soon after. In 1861, Hopkinson sought to double the tax on land on the plea of utilising the excess revenue on works of public utility. The proposal did not receive the approval of the Board of Revenue,and in 1865, Hopkinson renewed his proposal in a different from proposing to raise the revenue on land with the object of equalising the rates in all the districts. He also wanted to raise the rates of ''house-hold and garden lands.'' Hopkinson's proposal, on this occasion, received the approval of the Government of Bengal and consequently rates of rupti and non-rupti lands increased from 25 to 50 per cent in almost all the districts. From early 1869, mels were frequently held at Gobindapur, Hadira, and Bajali in Kamrup. A no tax campaign on a vigorous scale was launched by the ryots of Rangia and Lachima in the district of Kamrup and Patharughat in Darrang. During the month of December,1892,people belonging to Tahsils of Pati Darrang ,Nalbari,Barama,Bajali and also of the five mouzas of upper Borbhag and Sarukhetri in their mels resolved not to yield to any sort of Government pressure and excommunicate those who would pay revenue to the Government. The movement started with the looting of the Rangia bazar. The firm resistance of the ryots and the apprehension of further troubles compelled McCabe to strengthen security measures. Without prior permission of the Deputy Commissioner,meetings of the mels were banned. But this could not suppress the people. Troubles of serious nature broke out again at Patharughat,where the police chased the ryots ,firing continuously along the Mongaldoi road and scores of them lay dead and wounded. There was also firing at Rangia to disperse a huge and rebellious gathering which demonstrated their resentment against imposition of enhanced revenue. The popular uprising,was termed by the British as the ''Assam riots'',and it considered as a very serious affair and the suppressive measures of the Government were viewed very seriously. The editorial in the Indian Nation declared that ''the burden which now press upon the land in Assam are considerably heavier than on land owned by Zamindars in Bengal.'' The Amrita Bazar Patrika observed on its editorial that ''in the Deccan the furry of the ryots was directed against money lenders,in Bengal against indigo-planters in 1860, in Pabna against Zaminders in Assam,at this movement,it is open rebellion against the Government.''89 Direct British rule after the Queen's proclamation changed the form of Government but internal administration changed only for the worse. The multiplication of taxes, like stamp duties, income-tax, etc., could not but be a matter of serious concern to the agricultural ryots,and consequently the Phulaguri riot of 1861 took place where the tribal peasants of the area demonstrated a popular discontenment protesting against the gradual enhancement and introduction of new taxes by the British and finally engulfed the entire rural population of Assam by 1893-94.
Impact of the rising :
The peasant movement of Assam had its echo in the Imperial Legislative where Dr.Rash Bihari Ghosh questioned the propriety of realising land revenue by the agency of special constables. The authorities could give only vague replies to the pointed questions. Though the risings failed at last,the lessons were not lost. The national movement was baptised in this economic struggles and it found political outlet with the birth of national consciousness. 89. Political History of Assam,Vol,1, p. 100-102 With the spread of western education during the last part of the nineteenth century a new awakening surcharged the patriots of the land. The public grievances were forwarded to the Government for consideration through Raijmels of the different parts of the province. The year of 1885 was recognized as the birth year of Indian national Congress. Before the birth of this organization,The Ryot sabha was formed by a group of enlightened people primarily to protest against the enhancement of land revenue and to ventilate other public grievances in the province. Though the Indian National Congress was not started in Assam in 1885,the delegates from different Raijmels or sabhas of different districts of the province were sent to attend the congress Session wherever it held. Devicharan Baruah was the first Assamese to joined in the second Indian National Congress held in 1886. British authority had a mortal fear of the authority of the mels which they compared with the Nihilist organization. The Raij-mels increased popular consciousness and confidence in strength. The Ryot-sabha or Raij-mels were active in districts like Sibsagar, Nagaon, Darrang, Kamrup and Lakhimpur. The mels in Assam played an important role in making the people conscious of the utter helplessness in which they lived under the alien rulers. The Tezpur Ryot Sabha was established in and around 1884 at the initiative of the new elites,the Ryot Sabha had a wide base in the villages. It collected small subscriptions from hundreds of peasants and in 1887 built the Tezpur Town Hall, the first of its kind in Assam. The Assam Desh Hitaishini Sabha in 1885, at Sibsagar and Gyan Pradayini Sabha in 1857, at Nagaon with object of spreading advanced knowledge among people were formed under supervision of Anandaram Barua and Gunabhiram Barua. The foundation of the Sarbajanik Sabha held at Jorhat in 1884 by Jagannath Barua is a landmark in the history of political association in Assam. The Sarbajanik Sabha desired abolition of the cultivation of the poppy by gradual doses and also urged upon educational policy of the Government. The Sabha not only demanded large employment of the natives of the soil,but also emphasised on the improvement of their service condition and emoluments. All these Sabhas desired reintroduction of Assamese as the medium of instruction by which the scope of education would be widened and thus the ''Jonaki Age'' in Assamese literature began. The impact of the west replaced the blind faith of age-long beliefs,customs and conventions by a spirit of rationalism. Orthodoxy continued to be the order of the day,but its gradually relaxed. The outlook of the orthodox sections gradually changed and before the close of the century students from the high caste Hindus were seen proceeding to the Presidency College at Calcutta for higher courses in English education though the aim of English education was primarily for the purpose of creating a set of clerks to run Governments offices. The establishment of the Cotton College at Guwahati in 1901 contributed to the spread of higher education. The educational policy of the Government was also viewed with serious concern by the Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha. During the years 1874-1905,Assam has no legislature of its own and the people then had no chance of participating in legislative activities of any kind. In March,1990,Lord Curzon paid a visit to Assam. It afforded the European planting community the golden opportunity to represent their interests for expansion of industrial and commercial undertaking in Assam. In an address of welcome, J.Alstone, the Superintendent,Assam Frontier Tea Company Limited, Dibrugarh, appealed to the Viceroy to improve the lines of communication and means of transport in the province and also to conduct a survey of the mineral resources in the neighbouring hill tracts. As Assam has no legislative council of its own,a permanent seat for Assam in India Legislative Council was pleaded for. The demographic changes also took place during the years 1874-1905, in the Assam Valley. The epidemic appearing in the Brahmaputra and the Surma Valleys caused retardation of agricultural growth in the province,and the influx of immigrants more than neutralized the decline in the indigenous population. Non-indigenous elements came to constitute at least one quarter of the population of Assam proper in 1901. The composition and distribution of population affected the peasant's economy adversely.90
The period of preparation and growth of political consciousness :(1901-1918):
The year of 1903 was recognized in the Assam history with redmark, as the educated gentry of Assam led by Manik Chandra Baruah, Ghanashyam Barua, Jagannath Barua, Faizner Ali and others of an All-Assam Political Organization gave birth to the Assam Association. Raja Probhat Chandra Barua of Gauripur, Assam,was one of the chief promoters who presided over the inaugural session at Dibrugarh, Karmabir Nabin Chandra Bardoloi presiding over the 1917 session of the Association at Dibrugarh, elaborately described the necessity of the Association and remarked,''organise, knock at the door and you find the door opened.'' Further,the Association strongly expressed the feelings of popular resentment against the Rowlatt Acts and the Jalianwalla Bagh massacre in Punjab,in April,1919. Presiding over its Goalpara session in December, 1918, T.R. Phookan said,''The Government is bad and bureaucratic. It should be democratic. The English officers and English traders and also section of Indians do not advocate popular 90. A. Guha : Planters Raj to Swaraj. P 42-43. HISTORY 153 Government and Lord Sydenhem and others say that Indians are not fit for self Government. But one cannot learn swimming without plunging in water. If India is not fit for self Government even after a century and half of British rule, who is responsible for this?'' The members of Assam Association later distinguished themselves as leaders of the freedom struggle and introduced an element of extremism into the politics of the Association and replaced it in 1921,by the provincial Congress Organisation. The Assam Association focused its active attention on all questions of public importance in the province. It served as the mouth-piece of the people of Assam in presenting to their''needs and grievances,hopes and aspirations.'' It launched a strong agitation against the unpopular grazing-tax imposed by the Government of grazing of cattle in the forest reserves of Assam. The Association also kept a vigilant eye over the opium policy of the Government. The growth of nationalism in the 19th century Assam was a two track process;people were increasing by turning as much to the great nationalism at the all-India level as to the little nationalism at the Linguistic regional level. Towards the close of the nineteenth century,a partition of Bengal was imminent and Assam's status as a separate province also came to came to an end on 16th October,1905,and Fuller was promoted as the first lieutenant Governor of the new-born composite province of Eastern Bengal and Assam. The anti-partition agitation was meanwhile in full swing in Bengal and the Surma valley. The province of ''Eastern Bengal and Assam came into being consisting of an area of 275937.5346 square kilometres and a population of 31 million souls'' as Mr. Fuller mentioned in his speech addressed at Guwahati Municipality on Nov. 1,1905. He assured the people of Assam that the proposed change will not affect their privileges. The Assam Association and the Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha organised protest meeting against this undesirable tagging. Meetings were held at Dhubri, Gauripur, Goalpara, Guwahati and Dibrugarh against the formation of the new province in the following years. This anti-partition movement strengthened people's belief in Swadeshi and Swaraj. British goods were boycotted totally and the shops were started in different places of Assam for the sale of Swadeshi goods. Evidently the anti-partition agitation turned into a popular movement based on Swadeshi boycott and national education. The Muhammedan population of both Valleys also joined the movement. Though the tussle between Bengal and Assam continued on language, employment, and land issue; the people of Assam and Bengal joined hands on the thresh hold on nationalistic movement in the struggle for freedom from British toke. At Guwahati in 1905 an attempt was made by Ambika Giri Roy Choudhury and Gobinda Lahiri to organise the local students in Swadeshi spirit. A group of Assamese students volunteered to work as labourers in Railway stations and steamer ghats and to donate their earnings to the common found organised for Swadeshi cause. Even the Pandas of Kamakhya ceased to use beet-sugar and liver pool salt. Ambika Giri Roy Choudhury, Tringuna Barua and few others attracted towards the cult of terrorism under the influence of Barin Ghose and Khudiram, but this movement ended with Ambika Giri Roy Choudhury being interned at Barpeta for a long stretch of 8(eight)years from 1907 to 1915. In Nov. 1912 the first Assam Lagislative Council was created with 13 nominated and 12 elected and 12 elected members with the Chief Commissioner as the Chairman. The provincial council had no power to control the budget of the province though the representatives were allowed to criticise it. The budget,in fact,was an estimate from which the Government could at any time depart. No nation-building programme could be undertaken by the Council due to this prevalent rigidity of financial system. Tarun Ram Phukan and Radha Govinda Das (Sylhet) resigned on the ground of the futility of the Council. Phani Dhar Chaliha, a planter's representative also resigned in protest against a deregatory remark from the Chairman. Of the leading members,mention may be made of Kamini Kumar Chanda, Manik Chandra Baruah, Padmanath Gohain Baruah, Radha Binode Das, Muhammad Saadullah and Raja Prabhat Chandra Baruah. Padmanath Gohain Baruah criticised the policy of the Government in giving undue representation to the planters in the Local Boards, and he argued that their interest in Local Boards was not so ''universal''as those of native population. When the Morley-Minto reforms opened the problem of the minorities in India,It was but natural that members belonging these communities would plead for their special needs and requirements in the Council. Deprecating the predominance of the official elements in the Local Boards,Muhammad Saadullah demanded communal representation of the Muslims in these bodies. As a result,power and responsibilities of legislators were greatly circumscribed. An event of considerable importance to be recorded was the formation of the Assam Student Conference in 1916,the first session of which was held amidst great enthusiasm at Guwahati under the presidentship of the great Assamese literature and patriot Lakshminath Bezbaruah.91 The Assam Students Conference helped to create a cadre of student leaders who played important part in the Non-co-operation and subsequent movements. Leaders like Chandranath Sarma. Omeo Kumar Das,Hem Chandra Barua, Padmadhar Chaliha came into prominence first as student leaders. A demand for full provincial status for Assam was being voiced by Assam Association for very long time and expected the aspiration to be materialised through proposed constitutional reforms of 1918. A deputation from Assam. 91. K.N. Dutta : Landmark of the freedom in Assam. Association,headed by N.C. Bordoloi was sent to London to represent Assam's case before the Selbourne committee of house of Lords. As the result of the meeting,Assam acquired the status of a full fledged Governor's province under the Government of India Act,1919. Gradually,affected by the Jaliwanwalla massacre,political pivots of Assam were being drawn by the non-co-operation movement and call for Hindu-Muslim unity made by Mahatma Gandhi under Congress banner. Assam was prepared to march with the rest of India towards the common goal of freedom and the struggle for freedom in Assam formed an inseparable part of the India struggle. Assam was thus slowly drawn into the orbit of the new action-oriented all-India political agitation.
Non-co-operation and Dyarchy on Trial (1918-1947):
Assam had played a significant role in the struggle for freedom though in the earlier stages,her political development was too slow due to want of intellectual contact with the rest of India as a result of backwardness in English education and lack of communication. As a response to the call of non-co-operation, Kaliram Barman of Guwahati withdrew nomination paper after scrutiny and Kumudram Bora, an already elected member to the council resigned. 1919 was an eventful year in the political history of India. Gandhiji launched the Non-co-operation movement on 1st August 1920, which was the direct outcome of Khilafat movement. In Assam, both the Hindus and Muslims equally responded to the cause of Khilafatist. In response to the Khilafat movement, Guwahati, Goalpara, Jorhat, Sibsagar and North Lakhimpur observed hartals and held public meetings respectively. Although, Nabin Chandra Bordoloi and others did not support Gandhiji at Calcutta(Sept.1920);had apparently realised the direction in which the wind was blowing. And after returning the Guwahati Bordoloi started a propaganda campaign, seeking the support of the Assamese intelligentsia to the non-co-operation movement. The Assam Association held district-level meetings at Nagaon, Sibsagar, Jorhat, Dibrugarh throughout October,1920 and discussed the non-co-operation issue. While the issue of non-co-operation was being hotly debated,N.C. Bordoloi, the general secretary of the Association,C.N. Sarma and Tarunram Phukan moved from one corner of the province to the other to mobilize public opinion. The Guwahati Bar Association at the initiative of young lawyers,even decided to boycott the Viceroy's visit. Almost all the district level Associations took decision to boycott Council elections also raised objection to take titles, honour and honorary posts from British Government. The boycott agitation of the students had almost automatically led to the demand for setting up national schools and national colleges in the province. Finally,a national school was established in Feb.1921, in the premises of the residence of Rohinikumar Choudhury, at Bharalumukh, Guwahati. Such establish- ment was followed in other parts of the province. The outbreak of the World War I had disturbed the equilibrium of the commercial world. The Secretary of food stuff and other necessaries gave rise to economic crimes like theft and burglary in many places of both the valleys. Phanidhar Chaliha in his speech in the council held on 13th March 1918, urged upon the Government to take necessary step. In March1918,the retail price of salt in the Assam Valley was fixed by a notification and similar measures followed soon in the other valley and the hills districts. The deep rooted economic malady had hit the labour population of the plains districts. The Chargola exodus,a well-known historical episode in which the tea labourers of the tea gardens of the Cachar district were brutally treated by European planters,enraged the nationalist leaders who took up their cause. And finally,an economic struggle at the beginning,the sporadic strikes later on culminated into a mass political action in the form of a collective escape from the bonded labour system. It was the product of an interaction between the Gandhian impact on primitive minds and the incipient class militancy. There were strikes in Dibrugarh, Sibsagar and Darrang. Labour of entire Assam raised general complaints about low wages,excessive work-load,inadequate facilities of leave,high prices of food and cloth in the State. Prolonged labour troubles caused some anxiety in the official circles. As proposed by all-India Congress Committee,the Congress leaders of Assam kept fully alive the tempo of Civil Disobedience. Based on the Civil-Disobedience movement,the Congress Working Committee urged upon the people to be prepared to face all sorts of hardships and indignities with calm fortitude and unflinching devotion to the cause of Swaraj . To meet the Purna Swaraj, large number of people began to enrol themselves as volunteers,strengthen the National Volunteer Corps. Soon, Phukan and Bordoloi, the top leaders of the Assam Congress were arrested on 30th Nov., 1921, followed by arrest of quite a number of leaders. In terms of arrests and convictions,the sub-division of Tezpur, Golaghat, Guwahati, Sibsagar and Sylhet suffered badly. The economic depression of the thirtees was so wide spread that the phased Civil Disobedience Movement tended to grow into an anti-imperialist mass revolt. Not only British rule, but land-lordism and capitalism also came under fire from the emergent leftist youths. The peasants refused to pay land-revenue to British agents. A number of police and Government official resigned from Government services. ''Saptahik Assamiya''a weekly published from Guwahati was prosecuted for defamation of British officer,for publishing a report on defilement of Sundaridiya Satra at Barpeta by Captain Calvert,in course of his repressive operation. Jails were filled with non-co-operators. The British Government exerted its full strength to repress the participants and to suppress the movement by use of arms,and finally succeeded in qualling the agitation. In 1922,after the Choiri Choura riots in Uttar Pradesh, Mahatma Gandhi called a halt to the movement and the Congress Working Committee endorsed the decision. Since then,the leaders of Assam began to stress on the constructive programmes such as temperance work,spinning of yarns and weaving of khaddar, being prosecuted withdrawal. In 1922, Omeo Kumar Das attendent the All-India Congress committee meeting and related to it the story of severe repression which was then going on in Assam. Two-member committee of Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya came to Assam to study the political situation in Assam. The two leaders visited several places in Assam and were deeply impressed with the progress of the movement in Assam and the contribution made by the people,in the shape of suffering and sacrifice for the attainment of freedom. Orthodox non-co-operators of Assam stood firm in their commitment to the implementation of constructive programmes, as a result of which the Swaraja party in Assam was formed within Congress in 1923. As the result of the movement,the British Government in Assam agreed to introduce measures for gradual decline of opium consumption in Assam. This was the most important achievement so far Assam was concerned. The next achievement of importance was introduction of Local self government Act and passing of Assam Municipal Act,1923, with provision for more elected members and elected chairman. Election to the Legislative Council was held in 1923,which was more than one surprise for the Congress and the country. The Swarajya party contested almost all the seats and their candidates everywhere received support from the local Congress and Khilafat organisation. Tarun Ram Phukan was elected to the Indian Legislative Assembly unopposed. Out of the 39 elective seats of the Assam Council only 13 members of the previous council could retain their seats. The Swarajya party failed to secure absolute majority in the council and therefore,carried on negotiation with the Independents. With a view to wrecking the constitution and attacking the Government inside the council,the first meeting of newly elected council decided to form Assam Nationalist Party in 1924,as happened elsewhere in India. This policy of infiltration proved fruitful as in April,1924,the Assam Legislative Council succeeded in cutting the salary of ministers from Rs.3,500/- P.M. to Rs.1500/- P.M. And the opium Prohibition Act was also passed on 3rd March,1925. But split occurred in the Coalition party in March 1925 last,and the Swarajists realized that they could no longer command a majority. The Assam Court Fees(Amendment)Bill in the Assam Stamp(Amendment)Bill of 1925 were passed,despite the opposition of the Swarajists. Finally, they lost the majority and the All India Congress Committee in 1926 too directed the Swarajists to stage walk-out in all the legislative bodies. The forty-first Congress Session was held from 26thto 28th Dec.1926,under the presidentship of S.Srinivas Iyenger, at Guwahati. The Swarajist no changers and the responsive co-operators, all came to the Guwahati Session.92 In December, 1929, in response to the call for Civil Disobedience movement launched by the National Congress,Assam spontaneously celebrated 'Independence Day' on 26thJan,1930. In Feb,1930, the old leaders resigned their offices in the Provincial Congress. At this critical hour Bishnuram Medhi came forward to save the situation,who volunteered to shoulder the responsibility of the Congress presidentship in Assam. In April,1930,after the historic Dandi March of Mahatma Gandhi,the Assam Congress to joined in the Civil Disobedience Movement. The national week of ''war against salt tax''was observed and the law breaking movement spread by way of violating the Forest Laws.93 The struggle in Assam took the form of a boycott of foreign cloths, excisable drugs and the shops selling such goods. Picketing was resorted to. Sri Bishnuram Medhi helped by Tyagbir Hemchandra Barua, Dr. Bhubaneswar Barua, Omeo Kr. Das, Sidhinath Sarma, Pitambar Goswami, Gormur Satradhikar, Lakhidhar Sharma and others conducted the movement very successfully. Srimati Chandra Prabha Saikiani and Srimati Durgaprava Barua took up picketing in front of Cotton College Guwahati. The arrest of the national leaders included a spirit of fearlessness amongst the general mass. The authority clamped section 144Cr. P.C. in Nagaon, Tezpur and Dhubri to suppress this popular consciousness. But people from different places participated in the protest demonstration. As a result,police attacked the crowd with lathis and batons in such places. The movement got spontaneous support from the rural mass. Stream of innumerable Satyagrhis faced lathi charge, arrest and other tortures and went to jail. Meanwhile the student unrest begun in protest of Government circular demanding from the students and guardians an undertaking to abstain from joining politics. Some public high schools like Kamrup Academy, Barpeta Bidyapith, etc.,were established by the Nationalists. The movement dragged on till May,1934,and most of the leaders like Nobin Chandra Bordoloi were sent to jail for the 2nd time. To cripple movement,the Government also adopted a policy of penal action after arrests. Most of the active members of the Civil Disobedience movement were convicted. The persons that were convicted in proportion to arrest made in Assam up to 31st March,1932,were males 885,females 54 and convicted males 672 and females 42.94 92.A.C. Bhuyan : Political History of Assam, Vol.II,Govt. of Assam. 93. A.C. Bhuyan : Political History of Assam,Vol. II, 1978,p.161-64. Between 1930 and 1938,in spite of occasional difference amongst the leaders,Congress organisation got very strong. But,as in a bid to open up fallow waste lands in Assam for cultivation,influxes of landless peasants from East Bengal were being invited to Assam by the then Assam Ministry headed by Sir Md. Saadullah, and because flow of innumerable jobseekers continued to Assam unabated,a section of Assamese nationalists got alarmed and Ambika Giri Roy Choudhury, a staunch nationalist to the core,founded''Assam Sangrakshini Sobha'' and without seceding from the Congress, began to voice through this organisation, demands ''for vindication of right of the Assamese people,the children of the soil as against aggression of outsiders.95 As most of these people from East Bengal were Muslims there was a general sympathy of a section of Assam Muslims to them. As a result a section of Assam Muslims barring the Assamese Muslims,the old east Bengal Muslims and Hindus did not take part in the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930-32. Assam Sangrakshini Sabha was later on converted into Assam Jatiya Mahasabha. All those ryot sabhas organised by Assam Sangrakshini Sabha became the strong holds of Assam during the later movements sponsored by the National Congress under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhiji. Rani Gaidinliu played major role in the Civil Disobedience in Assam. Gaidinliu organised a revolt against the constituted authorities. The meetings of the Assam Provincial Ryot Sanmilan,Assam Association and Ryot Association were held in different places of Assam and devoted mainly to non political matters in 1933. The political movement of the Civil Disobedience Movement was restarted after the declaration of the communal award. Instead of ideal of purna swaraj heading the list of priorities,the Harijan suddenly gained prominence at this point time. In fact, after the Poona pact, the upliftment of the Harijan and the removal of untouchability was taken up by the Congress leaders in Assam with immense fervour. The persuance of Congress decision to let the reforms introduced by the Government of India Act,1936,Assam Congress also participated in 1937 election and won 33 seats in a House of 108 and formed the largest single upon in the Assembly. But non-acceptance of ministry being the Congress policy then , a Coalition Ministry was formed by the other groups with Sir Saadullah as the Chief Minister. Sir Saadullah being associated with the legislature and the British administrative machinery for more than 15 long years, he was naturally the most likely selected one for the position by the Governor of Assam. But on 13th Sept.1938, this ministry had to face acute discomfort due to its communal policies and total neglect of the preservation need of the ''the children of the soil''and in order to avoid defeat in no-confidence vote in the Assembly, 95. K.N. Dutta : Landmark of Freedom Movement in Assam,1959,p.70 Sir Saadullah had to resign. Thereafter, the Congress Coalition Ministry was formed with Gopinath Bordoloi as its head. This Ministry took up the causes of labour in the Assam Oil Company labour Dispute, and this won over the industrial labour also to the side of Congress organisation. But in the meantime,in Sept., 1039, the Second World War broke up and a consequence of the Congress refusal to be a party in the Imperialistic War,during Oct.-Nov.1039, the ministry in Assam resigned,and on 17.11.39,Md. Syed Saadullah again formed a Coalition Ministry . This, however, created acute problem as Sir Saadullah was always a very ardent supporter of the British. In December, 1941, in protest against a Government circular for participation of students in the War Fund Exhibition held at Guwahati Judge Field, a student's demonstration was held by the students of Cotton College. Police attacked students with lathi. Such lathi charges took place in other places of the country also. Rohini Choudhury, a number of the Coalition Ministry of Syed Saadullah resigned from ministry in protest of police atrocity on students. On 24.12.41 the Saadullah ministry also had to resign The British Government organised Village Defence party to courterpoise Santi Sena organization of Congress. But, in fact, the Village Defence parties organised by the Government were swallowed up by the Santi-Senas in rural areas. In Oct.1940, on refusal of the Viceroy to concede to the National Government as demanded by Congress a campaign of individual Satyagraha was launched under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi in Assam, Gopinath Bordoloi, Bishnuram Medhi, Omeo Kumar Das and many others also took part in the satyagraha and got arrested. In the meantime, the allies of the British advanced towards India,and Sir Stafford Cripps had to come to India in March,1942 and put forward an offer of Dominion. Congress refused and took up the famous ''Quit India'' resolution on 8th August, 1942. Assam jumped into the movement with a quick stride and on 9th August,1942, Md.Tayabullah, Fakaruddin Ali Ahmed, Bishnuram Medhi, Debeswar Sarma, Dr. Harekrishna Das, Lila Barua with many others were arrested by the British as preventive measure. Gopinath Bordoloi and Sidhinath Sarma who were away at Bombay in connection with the All India Congress meeting got arrested at Dhubri immediately on their return. All organisations including Ryot-sabhas which subscribed to the Congress fund were declared unlawful. But the tremendous pace of the growing movement could not be halted. The abrupt official action intensified the Quit India Movement. Acting under their local leaders,the people stood up in a massive protest against the Government's action. Santi Sena organisations were set up throughout the State under the leadership of local Congress Socialists. Mahendra Nath Hazarika, Lakshmi Prasad Goswami, Sankar Barua built up an underground resistant movement. A Mritya Bahini or death squad was formed in the State under the leadership of Mahendra Nath Hazarika. The party carried out some serious acts of sabotage throughout the State. In Darrang district, Jyoti Prasad Agarwala, Gohon Chandra Goswami went underground and carried out sabotage at various places by organizing Mrityu Bahini. To suppress the movement,the police restored to severe from of violence. Firing was restored to on many occasions. Firings caused death to many people including Kanaklata, Taleswari, Numali, and Khahulis who were all teen aged girls. The judgement in the Dhekiajuli firing case contained severe structures on the police which even the High Court saw no grounds to relax. Victim of police atrocities in North Lakhimpur and Dibrugarh were Madhuban Chutia, Bhogeswar Chetia and Pohor Gogoi, In Sibsagar, the individual Satyagraha movement was started by MoulanaTayebulla, the President of the Asom Pradesh Congress Committee. Entire Sibsagar district responded to the call of ''Quit India Movement''. The police made lathi charge on processions in every place. Many were arrested and imprisoned or detained. Kushal Konwar, who was believed to be innocent,was however,declared to be guilty of sabotage and awarded capital punishment by the court that tried him. He was hanged in Jorhat Jail in 1943. The Government also levied collective fines on the people of different district in the Province to undermine the movement. In Kamrup district at Bahjani in Nalbari sub-division and Bajali in Barpeta sub-division, the village Panchayats were formed and schemes of Panchayat administration was drawn up. Madan Barman and Rawta Kachari lost their lives in the police firing in Bajali. People's hatred against repressive bureaucracy mounted up. Rising high prices and food shortage added fuel to the fire and they put all efforts to paralyse the Government. The district of Nagaon played the most important role in the ''Quit India Movement''. At Barhampur,a village situated about 11 Kms east of Nagaon town, there was a huge gathering, upon which Police opened firing. As a consequence, Phuleswari Konwari, Lakhimi Hazarika, Thagi Sut and others embraced death for the cause of the country. Supply to military was stopped for a mouth and hats and bazars were closed down. Huge agglomeration of troops took place throughout the state. But in Spite of all,sabotaging by the guerilla Santi Senas remained unabated. In 1943, the Azad Hind Fauz organised by Subhas Chandra Bose who, attempted to win freedom of India with the help of the Germans and the Japanese, advanced to India through Burma and entered Assam. This alarmed the British Government in India,and in May,1944, prompted release of Mahatma Gandhi who was in sick-bed in jail. In January,1945,Mahatma Gandhi visited Guwahati along with four other leaders of Assam and performed mass-prayers. This was his last visit to Assam. The stormy days of the Quit India Movement passed over. The message of the movement failed to convince the British Government about the necessity of leaving the shores of India soon. In the meantime,the cry for a separate country for Muslims who are the religious in India,grew very strong and as a result of the communal policy undertaken by the pro-Muslim league Saadullah ministry in Assam and the increasing number of mutually apathetic East Bengal Hindu and Muslim immigrants entry into Assam ,rose a strong communal feeling amongst the people of Assam and the Assam Muslims also felt leaning towards the Partition of India Movement. In December,1945, Pandit Nehru made a swift tour to Assam making an impact in the public mind in favour of the Congress. So the congress won over 50 seats out of 108 in the election,two Independents joined later making the number 52 and the congress ministry with Gopinath Bordoloi as the Prime Minister was formed on 10th Feb.,1946. The Muslim League went for secret organizational activities to constitute ''Banglo-i-Islam'' comprising Bengal Bengal with its hinterland or Assam as envisaged by the Pakistan National Movement since 1940 for the Millat of Islam. Then came the Cabinet Mission to India,with a view to settle the Indian Problem. The mission introduced the grouping system in May,1946,as a result of which the Assam Provincial Congress rose enblock to resist against Assam's inclusion in the Grouping system which would have made Assam in future a majority state. Assam Jatiya Mahasabha also did the same and organised mass agitation throughout the state. One secret document was acquired from Khidirpur Dock(Bengal)by Assam Jatiya Mahasabha which,showed underground conspiracy of Maulana Bhasani group from eastern Bengal to invade Assam through population migration. So Syed Saadullah and Gopinath Bordoloi participated in the constituted Assembly on behalf of Assam and became instrumental in incorporating the sixth schedule I the constitution thereby,to set disintegration of population and geographical Assam afoot for future. This India was divided into India and Pakistan. Pakistan won freedom on the midnight of 14th August,1947,and India on the midnight of 15th August,1947. Marked events of national importance have taken place in the province of Assam after independence. Lying in the north eastern frontier of India,Assam has witnessed in course of ages great migrations and assimilations of people of different races into her hills and valleys. The Ahoms came from beyond the Patkai. The Daflas, Miris and Nagas, among others, also settled in the plains. Later immigrants from Bengal and other parts of India also came and settled in Assam, till the advent of the British. The present set-up of Assam is not a matter of mere accident. Undivided Assam at the time of independence, covered a large region comprising the entire Brahmaputra Valley, Khasi and Jaintia Hills,united North Cachar and Mikir Hills, Mizo and Naga Hill districts along with North East Frontier Border and Manipur, making the State a great assembly of hill tribes and plain tribes. But in the twentieth century, ethnic consciousness grew among the different ethnic groups, who started agitation and they raised the demand for their independent status and their own states and gradually,the Central Government conceded to their demands one after another. Nagaland with the area covered by the Naga Hills district and the division of the North-East Frontier Area was created in 1960, and by virtue of the North-Eastern Assam Reorganisation Act, 1971 (Act no.81 of 1971) enacted by Parliament, a new state known as Meghalaya was formed comprising autonomous districts of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills, the Garo Hills ans the Shillong Municipal and Cantonment area, and a new union territory if Mizoram comprising the territories of the Mizo district in the state of Assam was constituted. The new state of Meghalaya and the union territory of Mizoram came into being on 21st January 1972 and ceased to form part of the existing state of Assam. The hill tracts following the North-Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA) of Assam was constituted into a new union territory known as Arunachal Pradesh with the territories as specified in Section 6 of the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971.96 Finally, the Act created five states and two union territories in the north-eastern region of the country. The five states are Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and Nagaland, and the two union territories are Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram. The new units were to have their own government except the union territories and a common High Court for all. Furthermore,as a result of the 1971 war, East Pakistan seceded from Pakistan and emerged as Bangladesh,an independent country. 96. Source : Census of India,1971,Series 3,Assam, Part II-A.
Inscription and epigraphs :
Innumerable archaeological ruins belonging to the pre-Ahom period are to be found lying scattered throughout the State. Climate conditions,natural ravages as well as time,however,have taken their tolls,as a result of which not a single standing monument of this period is to be found. But the very fact that such ruins existed in great abundance all over this region and that many of the later-day temples were built over the foundations of earlier temples,speak volumes of the vigorous architectural activities which,however,would not have been possible without the liberal patron-age of the ruling dynasties of this period. This gives one a fairly good idea about the religious and cultural activities and attainments during the period in question. It is,however,the local epigraphic records supplemented by literary sources,which help us in a large measure in reconstructing the political history and to a lesser extent the religio-cultural history,of the period. These epigraphs are to be found on rock-faces,copper-plates and their seals,clay sealings,or on the body of stone and metallic images. The copper-plates were issued in connexion with the donation of land of Brahmanas. A brief description of these is given below.
1)The Umachal Rock Inscription of Surendravarman :
The rock cut inscription of Surendravarman alias Mahendravarman, the sixth ruler of the Bhauma-Varman dynasty,is the earliest inscription hitherto found in Assam. In contains four short lines and supplies the only instance of the prevalence of the cult of Balabhadrasvamin and the construction of a cave temple in this region. The inscription is in the eastern variety of the Gupta script and belongs to the 5th century A.D.
2)The Nagajari-Khanikar Gaon Stone Inscription:
It is a fragmentary inscription containing five lines,and belongs to the fifth century A.D. It records the donation of land. However,no mention of the name of the donor is to be found in view of its fragmentary nature. Some scholars are of the opinion that this inscription is earlier than that of Surendravarman, mentioned above. At any rate this early inscription is a sure index to the spread of Brahmanic culture as far east as the Sarupather region. The inscription is in the eastern variety of the Gupta script.
3)The Badganga Rock Inscription of Bhutivarman:
It is in the eastern variety of the Gupta scripture and belongs to the reign of Bhitivarman of the Bhauma-Varman dynasty;and thus it can be placed somewhere in the first part of the 6thcentury. It refers to Bhutivarman as the performer of the Asvamedha sacrifice(horse sacrifice). The inscription shows that by the time of Bhutivarman, if not earlier, the Daboka and the peripheral region,which flourished as a separate kingdom in the 4th century A.D.,as evidenced by the Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta, became a part of the kingdom of the Bhauma-Varman dynasty.
4)The Dubi Copper-plate Inscriptions of Bhaskaravarman and its seal:-
These are the earliest of the copper-plate inscriptions so far discovered in Assam. These plates were issued as a substitute for an earlier set of damaged inscriptions,in all probability of Bhutiavarman, and belong to the earlier part of the reign of Bhaskaravarman. The grants as well as the seal attached ti it give the genealogical list of the Bhauma-Varman dynasty, starting from the legendary Naraka down to Bhaskaravarman, the last scion,although some of the names differ from those found in the subsequent inscriptions due probably to metrical necessity,want of space in the seal the tendency to use synonyms for the actual names. While the plates mention Bhutiavarman as the performer of a horse sacrifice but remain silent about such performances by Mahendravarman and Sthitavarman, the seal of the plates mention both of them as performers of two horse sacrifices each but remains silent about Bhutivarman. The plates also record the first instance of the Vedic coronation ceremony of Kamarupa ruler, i.e. of Sthitavarman.
5)The Three Nalanda Clay Seals of Bhaskaravarman :
These seals,found between 1917 and 1928,are important in that,while the one found in 1917-18 provides the genealogy of the Bhauma-Barman dynasty from Ganapativarman downloads,the other two seals give the complete list, besides describing Mahendravarman and Sthira (Sthita) Varman as performers of two horse sacrifices each.
6)The Nidhanpur Copper-plate Inscriptions of Bhaskaravarman :
These plates are of a later date than the Dubi copper plates of the same monarch,and were issued from the royal residence in Karnasuvarna, capital of Gauda which he wrested from king Sasanka. The donated land in question belonged to the Chandrapuri Visaya, the location of which has been variously suggested as either in Srihatta or in Pundravardhana in the context of determining the extent of Bhaskarvarman's kingdom. It is now generally accepted that Chandrapuri Visaya was located in Pundravardhana, probably in the modern Purnea district. The plaits are reissues of former grant made by Bhutivarman which was destroyed by fire. They also give the complete genealogical list of the Bhauma-Varman dynasty,as also such administrative terms as Nayaka (governor),Nyayakaranika (clerk of the judiciary), Vyavaharin (law officer),Mahasamanta (feudatory ruler),Bhandagarika (treasurer),Utkhetayitri (revenue collectors),etc.
7)Tezpur Rock Inscription of Harjaravarman :
This inscription of Harjaravarman consists of nine lines and is inscribed on a sheer rock-face, facing the Brahmaputra river at Dhenukhana parvat on the west of Tezpur town. The inscription is a public notice pertaining to a toll, and the river boundaries which certain fishermen were allowed to ply their boats. It also mentions the name of Sri Sucitta, a Mahasamanta Senadhyaksa (a great feudatory lord and chief of the army of Sri Harjaravarman ).The importance of the inscription,however, lies in the fact that this is the first dated inscription of Assam, giving the Gupta Era 510 (A.D. 829/830).
8)The Hayungthal Copper Plate Inscription of Harjaravarman :
Belonging to the middle of the 9th century, it gives, inter alia, the genealogical list of the Salastambha dynasty down to Vanamala, son of Harjaravarman, who issued the grant probably as prince-regent from Hadappesvara. The inscription is incomplete, as only the middle plate out of the total of three plates could be recovered and as such the purpose of the charter remains, undetermined. However,it makes reference for the first time to a ''Mleccha'' dynasty, with Salastambha as its first known king. The inspiration gives such administrative terms as Maha-Sainyapani (commander-in-chief),Maha-dvaradhipath (chief gatekeeper),Maha-Pratihara (chief usheer), Maha Amatya (chief counsellor)and Brahmanadhikara (officer-in-charge of the welfare of the Brahmanas).
9)Tezpur Copper Plate inscription of Vanamalavaramadeva:
Issued in the 9th regnal year from the capital city of Hadappesvara, the inscription,besides giving the genealogical list of the Salastambha dynasty down to Vanamala, also records the gift of a village named Indoka, and incidentally gives such place-names as Dasalangha, Chandrapuri, Avari, Naukuva and, interestingly, the name of the river Trisrota. There were atleast three Trisrotas in ancient Kamrupa, and the Trisrota, mentioned in the inscription, is sought to be identified with the river Karatoya.
10)The Parbatiya Copper Plate Inscription of Vanamalavaramadeva:
Neither any date nor any regnal year has been mentioned. From the genealogical point of view,it mentions the names of Naraka,Bhagadatta, Vajradatta, Salambha, Arathi and that of the donor only. It records the grant of a village Haposagrama in the Svalpamangoka Mandala in the Uttarakula (North Bank) to a Brahmin. The identity of the village as well as the Mandala remains undetermined.
11)The Dighaligaon Copper Plate Inscription of Vanamalavaramadeva:
It contains no date nor any regnal year, and mentions the names of Naraka Bhagadutta, Vajradatta, Salambha, Harsa and Harjara among the predecessors. The first twenty four lines of the epigraph are by and large similar to those of the Parbatiya Grant. According to D. Chutiya,'' A comparison of the three records of the same king indicates that the present one is complete in all respects. While the similarities.... bring the present text nearer to the Tezpur plates, the discrepancies between them indicate that the present record is earlier in date than both the Tezpur and the Parbatiya plates''. It records the donation of land in the Purjjika Pradesa in the Dakshinakula (South Bank), the location of which is yet to be determined. The name Purjjika, however, reminds one of the Puruji Visaya of the Khonamukh Copper Plate Grant of Dharmapala.
12)The Uttarbarbil Copper Plates of Balavarman III:
The Uttarbarbil plates were issued in the 5th regnal year of the king. The names of only some of his predecessors find mention there,such as, Salastambha,Palaka, Vijaya,Vanamala and Jayamala. It records the donation of land in the Varesapattana Visaya.
13)The Nowgong(Nagaon)Copper Plates of Balavarman III:
The first twenty-five verses of this grant are similar to those of the Uttarbarbil plates. So are the immediately following prose portions ending in the world''Kusali''. The land in question was granted in the Dijjina Visaya. The plates were issued in the 8th regnal year.
14)The Ulubari copper Plates of Balavarman III:
These plates were issued in the 13th regnal year of the king in connexion with performance of a Lakshahoma ceremoy . Here,too,the first few lines ending with the word''Kusali'' are the same as those of the above two inscriptions. The lans in question was denoted at Dikkura in the Manjai Visaya in the Uttarakula.
15)The Coratbari Copper Plate Inscription of Ratnapala :
Ratnapala, the second ruler in the line of the Pala dynasty of Pragjyotisha,issued this grant in the 12th regnal year from Hadappaka (Hadappesvara). Although the first inscribed page is badly damaged,the beginning of the extant portion shows that the first fifteen verses were the same as those of the Bargaon plates mentioned below. The land was donated in Havrnga Visaya.
16)The Bargaon Copper Plate Inscriptions of Ratnapala :
These were issued by the king in the twenty-fifth year of his reign in connexion with the grant of land at placed called Lavukuti in the Trayodasagrama Visaya in Uttarakula,Judging by the high literary standard of the inscription,it has been assumed that Ratnapala's court witnessed literacy and scholarly activities of high stan-dard.
17)The Sualkuchi Copper Plate Inscriptions of Ratnapala :
These three plates were issued in the twenty-sixth regnal year of Ratnapala. The contents of the first plate and the first page of the second plate ending with the word ''Kusali'' are common to those of the Bargaon grant. The land grant was made at Vamadevapataka Trayodasagrama in the Kalanga Visaya. None of these places has been identified.
18)The Guwahati Copper Plate inscriptions of Indrapala :
Issued in the eighth regnal year of his reign,the grant mentions that the land in question was granted in the Kasipataka of Hapyoma Visaya of Uttarakula,the location of which could not yet be determined. The inscription also mentions a number of administrative terms,such as, Visayakarana, Vyavaharka,etc.,etc..
19)The Guakuchi Copper Plate Inscriptions of Indrapala :
The grant was issued in the twenty-first regnal year of Indrapala's reign at Pandaribhumi of Mandi Visaya in Uttarakula. The first part of the inscription up to the word ''Kusali'' is exactly similar to that of the Guwahati Copper Plates mentioned above. Scholars have sought to identify Pandaribhumi with the present day Panduri Mauza in the Rangiya subdivision. Incidentally,the inscription also contains four figures of Garuda (Visnu's Vahana) sitting on a snake as well as a lotus, a conch and a cakra, all of them ayudhas (implements) of Visnu, although the grant in the beginning pays obeisance to Siva. However, this is the only instance of a copper-plate bearing art-works.
20)The Gachtal Copper Plate Inscriptions of Gopalavarmadeva :
Found at Gachtal near Dabaka, Nagaon district, the inscriptions, containing two plates, give the genealogy of the Pala dynasty of Assam, of which Gopala was the fourth in succession, the earlier three being Brahmapala, Ratnapala and Indrapala. According to this grant, Indrapala is stated to have defeated and annihilated Kalyanachandra, vanquisher of the king of Gauda and son of Sricandra, king of Vanga. More important, the inscription also mentions that his great grandfather Ratnapala defeated king Rajyapala (c. A.D.908-940) of Gauda. Thus,his contemporaneity with Rajyapala suggests, according to D.C. Sichar, that the must have flourished about the first half of the 10th century. If that is so,the chronology of the preceding ruling monarchs will need slight revision, and the beginning of the rule of Brahmapala, founder of the Pala dynasty of Assam, will have to be assigned to the beginning of the 10th century, and not to the fag-end of that century, as has hitherto been done. The inscription also makes mention of the capital city of Hadapyaka of Pragjyotisa which may plausibly be identified with Hadappesvara, which was formerly the capital of Harjara and Vanamala of the Salastambha dynasty. This suggests that Gopala retransferred the capital from Durjaya to Hadappesvara.
21)The Khobamukh Copper Plate Inscriptions of Dharmala :
The grant was most probably issued in the first regnal year of Dharmapala, and its gives us the genealogical list of the Brahmapala dynasty down to the donor. It is for the first time that a ''mangala'' verse in the name of the deity Ardhayuvatisvara (Ardhanarisvara) finds mention in an inscription of ancient Pragjyotisa. The land in question was donated at Digalandi in the Puruji Visaya, the locations of which cannot be as yet determined. The term Puruji is redolent of Purujika of the Dighaligaon inscription of Vanamalavarmadeva, as mentioned above.
22)The Subhankarapatak a Copper Plate Inscriptions of Dharmapala :
The first part of the inscription ending with the work ''Kusalina'' is exactly similar to that of the Khonamukh grant. It was issued in the third regnal year of the king;and it gives us such place-names as Sudhankarapataka and Dijjina Visaya,the later also finding mention in the Nagaon Grant of Balavarman III of the Salastambha dynasty.
23)The Pushpabhadra Copper Plate Inscriptions of Dharmapala :
This grant was issued much later. It gives the names of three of his predecessors,viz.,Brahmapala, Gopala and Harsapala,but leaves out those of Ratnapala and Indrapala. Interestingly,the first eight verses of the inscription were composed by Dharmapala himself, where he calls him ''Kavicakravalacudamani''.
24)The Kamauli Copper Plate Inscription of Vaidyadeva:
This is a grant issued by Vaidyadeva, minister of Kumarapala, the Pala king of Gauda, who was appointed ruler over the region to the east of the Pala kingdom, in place of Tingyadeve who became rebellious. By the time the grant was issued, however, Vaidyadeva assumed the imperial title of Maharajadhiraja-Paramesvara-Paramathattaraka, indicating thereby that he became an independent ruler and that Pragjyotisa Kamarupa constituted a part of his kingdom, since Pragjyotisa is referred to as a Bhukti and Kamarupa as a Mandala,and the grant was issued from the victorious camp at Hamsakonchi, which was in all probability situated in modern Kamrup, as the suffix ''Konchi'' suggests.
25)Tezpur or the Assam Copper Plate Inscriptions of Vallabhadeva :
These plates, dated Saka Era 1107 (A.D.1185), give the names of four rulers,viz, Bhaskara, Rayarideva, Udayakarna and Vallabhdeva himself of the Candra Vasma. It is,however,possible that Rayarideva started as a feudatory of Vaidyadeva and ended up as an independent ruler. It is not known whether it started as an independent dynasty. At any rate, it is generally agreed that Vallabhadeva was an independent ruler. The inscription also mentions that Rayarideva defeated a king of Vanga who is supposed to be Vijayasena of the Sena dynasty of Bengal. The inscription also mentions such place-names as Hapyaca Mandala and villages like Devanikonchi and Samsrahikonchika among others. Hapyaca is supposed to be comparable to Haposagrama of the Parbatiya plates of Vanamala,as also of Hapyoma Visya of the Guwahati grant of Indrapala. More important, however, are the suffixes''Konchi''and ''Konchika'',which point to their existence in the old Kamrup district. Scholars have also sought to identify Samsrahikonchika with Sangsari about ten Kms. north of Pandu, Kamrup district.
26)The Sankara-Narayana Stone Sculpture Inscription:
Inscribed on a Visnu image,this inscription mentions the name of Maharajadhiraja Sri Jivara,whose name is not be found in any of the copper-plate inscriptions of the ruling dynasty of Kamrupa. The inscription belongs to the 8th century A.D. on palaeographical ground. Since the names of two rulers immediately succeeding Balavarman II could not be found in any of the inscriptions of the Salastambha dynasty, historians have accommodated him after Balavarman II ti fill up a part of the gaps.
27)The Stone Inscription From Bishnupur,Golaghat:
Inscribed on an image of Yama (Harihara?). It also mention the name of Jivara in connexion with the consecration of an image of Hara.
28)A Fragmentary Copper Plate Inscription from Nagaon:
This badly damaged inscription of the 8th century A.D. distinctly mentions the name of Maharajadhiraja Sri Jivaraja, engraved on the seal,who appears to be no other than Sri Jivara of the Sankara-Narayana inscription and the Bishrampur Inscription mentioned above. Thus the name of Jivara appears to be an orthographical error. We thus have altogether two short inscriptions bearing the name of Jivara and one bearing the name of Jivaraja.
29)The Harihara Stone Image Inscription :
This inscription,belonging to the eight century,mentions the name of Maharajadhiaraja Sri Dighekhavarman, whose name is not to be found elsewhere. Historians have placed him immediately after Jivara or Jivaraja to fill up the gaps occuring after Balavarman II in the Genealogical list of the Salastambha dynasty.
30)The Narakasur Pahar Bronze Plaque and Copper Bell Inscription :
The inscription of the plaque mentions the name of Kumaradeva and his father Sri Palaka, in connexion with the donation of the same containing the image either of Nirriti or of Agni,depending upon the correct identification of the vahana (vehicle)of the deity. Both Kumaradeva and Palaka are scions of the Salastambha dynasty.
31)The Kanaibarashi-bowa Rock Inscription,North Guwahati:
It records the annihilation of the Turuska (Muslim) army in Saka Era 1127. This is considered to refer to Muhammed -bin-Bakhtiyar who was on his way back from his abortive Tibetan expedition, and who was confronted and worsted by the army of king Bartu or Prithu, who was probably the successor of Vallabhadeva, although his name has not been mentioned. According to D.C. Sircar, Bakhtiyar was probably defeated by ''the combined forces of several rulers of the kingdom into which the country was then divided''.
32)The Narakasur Pahar Bronze Plaque Inscription:
This plaque, containing an image of a deity standing on a tiger whose iconographic details do not lead to its correct identity, mentions the name of Sri Harjara of the Salastambha dynasty, as the one in whose realm this family deity (Kula-Devata) was donated. Earlier, D.C. Sircar read it as ''Sri Hastisya (correctly,Hastinath) Rajyapala (h)'',leaving the second line undeciphered, and suggested that it referred to the Rajyapala of the illustrious Hastin, whose identity could not be determined. Later, B.N. Mukharjee read it as ''Nabhasya'' (Krata) devata Vani-har (r)i Pratima''. Subsequently, D. Chutia, with plausible ground, deciphered it as ''Sri har (j)arasya-rajya-prarthiya kule-daivata-dharma-dasta-pratima''.
33)The Narakasur Pahar Bronze Plaque Inscription:
The Plaque contains a four armed female deity standing on the back of a buffalo, holding discus, trident, mace and rein and, in altogether five lines, mentions the name of the Vanamala who donated the image and referred to it as a ''J(y)aksina''or a Yaksini/Yaksi. Vanamala here is referred to as the lord of Hadapyaka (Hadappesvara), lord of Pragjyotisa and a ''Maharajadhiraja''.
34)The Inscribed Sun Image in the Assam State Museum:
This mentions the name of Harjaradeva of the Salastambha dynasty, during whose reign the image in question was made.
35)The Stone Inscription of Samudrapala,Ambari,Guwahati:
The inscription was issued in the Saka Era 1154 (A.D.1232)by one king Samudrapala, and it makes mention of the existence of a Satra (monastic establish-ment) at Yogihati. The identity of Samudrapala has yet to be identified.
36)Nilacala Plates of king Madhava:
The inscription was issued by one Maharajadhiraja Paramesvara-Paramabhattaraka Sri Madhava in his twentyfifth regnal year in connexion with the donation of land at Daluagrama in the Pandari Mandala. The first plate contains an incised image of Ganesha on the upper left-hand side,on the basis of which Neog has sought to identify him with a ruler belonging to the dynasty of the Ranee principality. To the south-west of Guwahati, since the tutelary deity of this dynasty was Ganesha. Interestingly Pandari also finds mention as a locality (Pandari-bhumi) in the Guakuchi plate of Indrapala. As such, some scholars have identified it with the Panduri Mauza of the Rangia subdivision. Neog, on the other hand seeks to locate it around the present Baihata Chariali region, about 35 Km north of Guwahati, in the Uttarakula, on the plausible ground of the existence of the Dimow rivulet and Kamesvara temple there, both of which find mention in the inscription. Regarding the date of inscription, Neog believes that on palaeographical ground it belongs to 16th-17th century, while D.C. Sircar assign it to the 15th century. S.C. Bhatacharya, on the other hand, is inclined to assign it to the first half of the 13th century. Madhava's identity has remained an engima. Neog attempts to identify him with a ruler of the Rance Pricipality. However, the assumption of the high-sounding title of Maharajadhiraja Paramesvara-Paramabhattaraka by a local chieftain makes it unlikely, if we accept the date assigned by him.
37)The Rautkuchi Copper-Plate Grant of Parushottama Das Saka 1251(A.D.1329)
It records the grant of land to a Brahmana at Raukuchi, Nalbari,Parushottama Das was a local Bhuyan chief,ruling in this region as vassal of the Kamata king,who was in all probability-either Dharmanarayana or Durlabhanarayana. Inscription of the Late-Medieval Period. During the late-medieval period or,to be more precise,from the time of king Naranarayana of Kamatapur, quite a large number of inscriptions were issued down to the beginning of the 19th century, the majority of which were issued under the patronage of the Ahom rulers, About thirty-seven of these were inscribed on stone,and the rest on copper plates,bells,cannons,images,etc. Most of these inscriptions were related to the donation of land,either Devottra (i.e., for the maintenance of the day-to-day activities of the temples or monastic establishment ), or Brahmottara (i.e.,for the maintenance of the persons,especially the priestly class), as well as different articles to temples or sattras. About eleven of these inscriptions are related to war, and about fourteen to the construction of temples. As regards the inscriptions on the cannons, they either relate to their capture or to manufacture. Of these inscriptions, the credit of issuing the highest number goes to Sivasimbha (40). Next in order come Rajeswarsimha, Pramattasimha and Laksmisimha. There are a number of inscriptions,all engraved on stone,which record battles with the Mughals. These are as follows: 1)The two Stone Inscription of Chamdhara Garh,Sonitpur -Pratapsimha,Saka 1538(A.D.1616). Inscribed on two faces of stone pillar situated on the northeast of the Bhomoraguri hill,both the inscriptions record victory over the enemies,presumably the Mughals;and one of them also record the construction of a defensive earthen rampart (garh)from Chamdhara to Bhomoraguri. 2)Rock Inscription at Bhomaraguri,Sonitpur. -Pratapsimha,Saka 1538(A.D.1616). This inscription is also situated on the southern end of the Bhomoraguri hill and records the vanquishing of the Yavanas(the Mughals)and the subsequent construction of a defensive rampart by cutting the 'Parvata',thereby meaning the Bhomoraguri hill. It will thus be seen that all the above three inscriptions relate to a single battle or a series of battles waged in the same year between the Mughals led by Saiyyad Abu Baqr and the Ahoms during the reign of king Pratapsimha (A.D.1603-1641). This fact is corroborated by different Buranjis (chronicles). Incidentally, these are also the earliest extant inscriptions of the Ahom rulers. 3.The North Guwahati inscriptions of Bahgarihia Buragohain, -Chakradvajsimha,Saka 1589 (A.D.1667). Situated near the Kanai-Barashi-Bowa inscription at the eastern end North Guwahati, there exit two inscriptions inscribed on a huge boulder, which record the defeat of the Mughals and the killing of their commanders. Saiyyad Chana and Saiyyad Firoz,in Saka 1589(A.D.1667)and the subsequent construction of defensive rampart. The inscription at the base of the boulder is topped by beautiful image of Ganesha. 4)The Stone Inscription of Namjani Barphukan,Guwahati - Chakradhajsimha,Saka 1589(A.D.1667) Inscribed on a pillar 3'7'' height,it records the vanquishing of the Yavanas(Mughals)by Namjani Barphukan in Saka 1589(A.D.1667). 5.Cannon Inscription of Jayadvajsimha,Saka 1580 (A.D.1658) Found at False Point near Diamond Harbour, Calcutta, it records the seizure of the cannon from the Yavanas (Mughals)by king Jayadhvajsimha in Saka.....80. Although the date is incomplete,the last two digits,as also the mention of the name of Jayadhvajsimha (A.D.1648-1663),would place the event in Saka 1580 (A.D.1658). 6)The two Cannons of Chakradhvajsimha : Both the cannons were captured from the Mughals in Saka 1589 (A.D.1667)and Saka 1590 (A.D.1668)respectively. 7)The two Cannons of Gadadharsimha: Both the cannon bear the Saka 1604(A.D.1682)and were captured from the Mughals. A list of the remaining inscriptions of the period are given below: 1)Stone Inscription of Nilacala Kamakhya Temple, -Naranarayana,Saka 1487(A.D.1565) It records the reconstruction of the Kamakhya temple by Sukladhvaja alias Cilarai,brother of king Naranarayan of Kochbehar. 2.Stone Inscription of Ganesvara Puskarini of Sri Sri Herambesvara Dununtra Rai, -Saka 1499 (A.D.1577) According to Neog, there is mention of a kingdom called Heremod in the Garu Charita. However,no mention of Dununtra Rai or of any other king is to be found in the Guru Carita. Dununtra Rai could be an alternative name of the Kachari king Yasonarayandev who flourished during this period. Buranji also refer to the Kachari Kingdom sometimes as Heremial and sometimes as Heremod. 3.Stone Inscription of Hayagriva-Madhava Temple,Hajo -Raghudev Narayana,Saka 1505 (A.D.1583) It records the construction of the Hayagriva-Madhava temple by Raghudev Narayana, son of Sukladhvaja or Cilarai,brother of Naranarayana, wherein he calls himself a Bhupati (king),although he became an independent ruler by Saka 1510 only. 4)Stone Inscription of the Kamateswari Temple of Kamatapur -Prananarayana,Saka 1507 (A.D.1585) It records the construction of the Kamatesvari (Bhavani)temple at Kamatapur (Gosanimari)by king Prananarayana. 5)Stone Inscription of Pandunath Temple,Pandu -Raghudeva Narayana, It records the construction of the Pandunath temple at Pandu near Guwahati by Raghudeva Narayana. 6. Copper Plate Land Grant of Bisvesvar Temple(?)Kamrup -Godadharsimha,Saka 1605 (A.D.1683) The location of the temple is not known. It is,however,not unlikely that temple referred to is the Bilvesvara temple at Chamata, Nalbari. The name Bisvesvara may be a scribal error since the reading is based on a copy from the ''Mazhar Book''in the Deputy Commissioner's office at Guwahati. According to Neog, this inscription gives us ''for the first time method of having Sanskrit verses at the beginning and at the end,with lines in Assamese of details (vivarana)of the gift intervening''. 7.Stone Inscription of Umananda Temple,Guwahati, -Gadadharsima,Saka 1616(A.D.1694). It records the construction of the Umananda temple by Sri Garhgaya Sandikoi Barphukan at the behest of king Gadadharsimha. Neog remarks,''it is to be noted that it is the present epigraph among the ones so far discovered that we find the epithet ''Saumaresvara''applied for the first time to an Ahom king.'' 8.Copper Plate Land Grant of Umananda,Guwahati, -Gadadharshima., Saka 1617(A.D.1695). 9.Copper Plate Land Grant of Umananda Guwahati, -Rudrasimha,Saka 1619 (A.D.1697). Here too,the king has been called''Saumaresvara''. 10. Copper Plate Land Grant of Siva Temple, Joysagar, Sivasagar. -Rudrasimha,Saka 1622(A.D.1700). 11. Copper Plate Land Grant of Keshabrai Vishnu Temple, Joysagar, Sivasagar. -Rudrasimha,Saka 1622(A.D.1700). 12.Copper Plate Land Grant from Lepetkata T.E.Dibrugarh, -Rudrasimha,Saka 1623(A.D.1701). Found in a stone case,it records the donation of land and a tank to six Brahmins. Neog thinks that the land in question was in the present-day Barbarua region near Dibrugarh and the tank is the Barbarua Pukhuri. 13. Copper Plate Land Grant of Kamakhya, Pandunath and Ugratara temple,Guwahati. -Sivasimha,Saka 1637(A.D.1715). 14. Copper Plate Land Grant of the Barpeta and the Bausi Parganahs, -Sivasimha,Saka1639(A.D.1717). 15. Copper Plate Land Grant of the Damodar Sattra,Patbausi,Barpeta, -Sivasimha,Saka1639(A.D.1717). 16.Copper Plate Land Grant of Bangsar Parganah,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1639(A.D.1717). 17.Stone Inscription of Nilachal Kamesvara Siva Temple,Kamakhya,Guwahati, -Sivasimha,Saka1640(A.D.1718). It records the construction of the temple in question of the behest of king Sivasimha. 18. Stone Inscription of Nilachala Sidhesvara Temple,Kamakhya,Guwahati,kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1640(A.D.1718). 19.The Umananda Image Inscription,Umananda,Guwahati,Kamrup, -Sivasimha,Saka1641(A.D.1719). The image in question is now lost. 20.Stone Inscription of Asvakranta Temple,North-Guwahati,Kamrup. 21.Stone inscription of Candika Temple at Chaygaon. -Sivasimha,Saka1647(A.D.1725). Badly damaged,it probably records the building of the temple in question by Tarun Duvara Barphukan. 22.Stone Inscription of Asvakranta Kurma-Janardona Phalgutsava Temple,North Guwahati. -Sivasimha,Saka1660(A.D.1738). It records the construction of the Phalgutsava temple in question. 23.Copper Plate Land Grant of Garaimari Sattra,Chamaria Parganah,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1648(A.D.1726). 24.Copper Plate Land Grant of Madan Mohan Parganah,Kamrup, -Sivasimha,Saka1660(A.D.1738). 25. Copper Plate Land Grant of Siddhesvara Devalaya,Saulkuchi,Kamrup, -Sivasimha,Saka1665(A.D.1743). Neog remarks,''This epigraph re-endorses a grant of land made by Gadadharsimha, as referred to in the Sanskrit,but the date given in the Assamese,1601 Saka/1679 A.D. and the name Budhajana(the old king)is confusing,unless we take it to mean Gadadhara, who become king in 1603 Saka after Sulikpha Lara-Raja (the boy king) (1679-81A.D.)''. 26.Stone Inscription of Mandakata Garh,North Guwahati,KAmrup, -Sivasimha,Saka1650(A.D.1728). 27.Stone Inscription of Nilacala Kamalesvara Temple,Kamakhya,Guwahati,Kamrup, -Sivasimha,Saka1650(A.D.1728). It records the construction of the temple in question under the aegis of Sivasimha. 28. Stone Inscription of Rangmahal Moat,North Guwahati,Kamrup, -Sivasimha,Saka1650(A.D.1732). 29.Stone Inscription of Paschim-dvara(western gate)of Guwahati,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1654(A.D.1732). 30.Stone Inscription of Vijaya-dvara(victory gate)of Guwahati,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1655(A.D.1733). 31.Copper Plate Inscription of Dergaon Siva Temple,Dergaon,Golaghat. -Sivasimha,Saka1656(A.D.1734). 32.Copper Plate Inscription of Barpeta Sattra,Barpeta. -Sivasimha,Saka1657(A.D.1735). 33.Stone Inscription of Digheswari Temple,North Guwahati,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1657(A.D.1735). It records the construction of the temple in question on the order of king Sivasimha. 34.Stone Inscription of the southern Vijaya-dvara of the Durbar Mandir of the Barphukan,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1660(A.D.1738). 35.Copper Plate Land Grant of Madan Mohan Parganah,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1660(A.D.1738). 36.Stone Inscription of the Northern Jaya-dvara of the Mantra Bhavana of Barphukan,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1660(A.D.1738). 37.Inscription of the Bell-Metal Gong of the Bali Sattra, -Sivasimha,Saka1660(A.D.1738). 38.Copper Plate Land Grant of Sundaridiya Sattra,Barpeta,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1660(A.D.1738). 39.Copper Plate Land Grant of Dharesvar Devalaya,Hatimura Parvat,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1660(A.D.1738). 40.Copper Plate Land Grant of Chengagram,Khetri Parganah,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1661(A.D.1739). 41.Copper Plate Land Grant of Makhibaha Gaon,Nambarbhag Parganah,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1661(A.D.1739). 42.Copper Plate Land Grant of Asvakranta Devalay,North Guwahati,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1661(A.D.1739). 43.Copper Plate Land Grant of Umananda,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1663(A.D.1741). It re-affirms the grant made by Rudrasimha to this temple in Saka 1619. 44.Copper Plate Land Grant to Satsangi Bhaktas in the Bangsar Paraganah,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1663(A.D.1741). 45.Copper Plate Land Grant of Konwarbhag and Pubpar Parganahs,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1663(A.D.1741). 46.Copper Plate Land Grant to a Geeta-Pathaka in Namborbhag Parganah,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1663(A.D.1741). 47.Copper Plate Land Grant of Maregaon,Komarbhag Pub-parganah,Kamrup. -Sivasimha,Saka1664(A.D.1742). 48.Copper Plate Land Grant of Kathabari Govindapur Grama of Khata Parganah,Nalbari. -Sivasimha,Saka1664(A.D.1742). 49.Copper Plate Land Grant of Bisikuchi Village,Bajali Parganah,Barpeta. -Sivasimha,Saka1664(A.D.1742). 50.Copper Plate Land Grant of Bichankuchi village,Bajali Parganah,Barpeta, -Sivasimha,Saka1665(A.D.1743). 51.Copper Inscription of the main Janardana Temple,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Pramattasimha,Saka 1666(A.D.1744). It records the construction of one of the two Janardana temples. 52.Stone Inscription of the Nilachala Amratakesvara Temple,Kamrup,Guwahati. -Pramattasimha,Saka 1666(A.D.1744). It records the construction of the temple in question. 53.Stone Inscription of Sukresvara Devalaya.Guwahati,Kamrup. -Pramattasimha,Saka 1666(A.D.1744). It records the construction of the temple in question. 54.Stone Inscription of Nilachala Durga Sarovara Kamakhya,Guwahati Kamrup. -Pramattasimha,Saka 1666(A.D.1744). 55.Stone Inscription of Silaghat Kamakhya temple,Nagaon, -Pramattasimha,Saka 1667(A.D.1745). It records the construction of the temple in question by Gadadhar Barphukan. The inscription calls Pramattasimha Purandara of Saumarapeetha. 56.Stone Inscription of Hatimura Durga Temple,Nagaon, -Pramattasimha,Saka 1667(A.D.1745). It records the construction of the temple in question at Silghat. 57. Copper Plate Land Grant of Dakhinpat Sattra,Majuli,Jorhat, -Pramattasimha,Saka 1671(A.D.1749). 58.Copper Plate Land Grant to Vaidya Visharada Ramacharya Upadhyaya, -Pramattasimha,Saka 1671(A.D.1749). 59.Stone Inscription of Rudresvar Devalaya,North Guwahati,Kamrup, -Pramattasimha,Saka 1671(A.D.1749). It records the construction of the Sri Sri Rudresvara Siva temple at the behest of the king. 60.Stone Inscription of the Phalgutsava Temple of Janardana,Guwahati,Kamrup, -Pramattasimha,Saka 1672(A.D.1750). 61.Stone Inscription of the Nilachala Phalgutsava Temple,Kamakhya,Guwahati,Kamrup, -Pramattasimha,Saka 1672(A.D.1750). 62.Stone Inscription of the Phalgutsava Temple of Hayagriva Madhaba Temple,Hajo,Kamrup, -Pramattasimha,Saka 1672(A.D.1750). 63.Stone Inscription of Nilachala,Kedara Mandir,Kamakhya,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1673(A.D.1751). 64.Stone Inscription of the Enclosure Wall of the Rudresvara Devalaya,North Guwahati,Kamrup. --Pramattasimha,Saka 1674(A.D.1752). In this connexion Neog observes,''The date in the inscription,1674 Saka, is particularly to be noted,as Rajeswarsimha succeeded Pramattasimha, who had the wall made in the previous year. It was under order of Pramatasimha that the temple of Rudresvara was built in 1671 Saka.....and it is possibly at his behest that the raising of the wall was started, even though it may have been completed after his death''. 65.Stone Inscription of the Navaratna Temple at Chitrachala,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1674(A.D.1752). It records the construction of the Navaratna or popularity known as Navagraha temple on the Navagraha(Chitrachala)hill. 66.Stone Inscription of the Navagraha Puskarini,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1675(A.D.1753). It records the excavation of what is at present popularly known as the Silpukhuri. 67.Copper Plate Land Grant of Sundarikhel Sattra, Pubpar Parganah,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1675(A.D.1753). 68.Copper Plate Land Grant of Diptesvara Temple,Paschimpar Parganah,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1676(A.D.1754). The location of the temple in question is not known. According to Neog,there is mention in the ''Kamarupar Buranji''of a 'Than'named Diptevari to the north of the Dharesvara Siva Temple on the Hatimura hill,Kamrup. 69.Copper Plate Land Grant of Saktipara Grama of Khata Parganah,Nalbari. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1677(A.D.1755). 70.Copper Plate Land Grant at Konwarbhag Pubpar Parganah for the provision of lamp,etc.,of the Hayagriva-Madhava Temple,Hajo,Kamrup. -Pramattasimha,Saka 1677(A.D.1755). Regarding the anomaly in the date, Neog observes ''The Assamese portion gives the year of the endorsement as 1677 Saka, so that the chronogram muni-vidhu-rasendu-saka should also stand for it. But Pramattasimha, whose order are recorded in the inscription,was succeeded to the throne by Rajeswarasimha in 1673 Saka........ It may also be noted that the gift was made by an earlier Barphukan, that is,the present officer's father,through a patra (an epistle on paper or bark)which being not a permanent thing,had now to be replaced with a tamrapatra by the present Tarun Duvara Barphukan''. 71.Copper Plate Land Grant to Chandikuchi Barua,Kamrup, -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1677(A.D.1755). 72.Stone Inscription of the Manikarneswara Devalaya,North Guwahati,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1677(A.D.1755). 73.Silver ''Japi''(Umbrella)to Dirgheswari Temple,North Guwahati,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1679(A.D.1757). 74.Stone Inscription on the Brick Enclosure of the Kedara Temple,Hajo,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1680(A.D.1758). 75.Copper Land Grant of the Matha of Kalakuchi Grama.Orara Talik,Khata Parganah,Nalbari, -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1681(A.D.1759). 76.Copper Plate Grant of Pubpar,etc.,Parganahs,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1681(A.D.1759). 77.Stone Inscription of the Natamandapa of the Kamakhya Temple,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1681(A.D.1759). 78.Copper Plate Grant for the daily worship at Sukresvara Temple,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1681(A.D.1759). 79.Copper Plate Grant of Nambarbhag,Parganah,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1685(A.D.1763). 80.Stone Inscription of Siddhesvara Temple,Sualkuchi,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1686(A.D.1764). It records the construction of the temple in question. 81.Stone Inscription of the Vasisthasrama Temple,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1686(A.D.1764). It records the construction of the temple in question. 82.Copper Plate Land Grant of the Jayar Sattra,Barpeta. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1686(A.D.1764). It is revalidation of the land previously granted by king Rudrasimha and also by king Sivasimha. 83.Copper Plate Inscription of the Vasudeva Matha,Dakhinpat Sattra,Majuli,Jorhat, -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1686(A.D.1764). 84.Copper Plate Land Grant to Pranapati Brahmana,Bajali Parganah,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1687(A.D.1765). It renews an earlier land granted by emperor Shahjehan,and appoints Pranapati Brahmana as Chaudhari of Bajali Parganah,together with Khata Taluk,and gives additional Brahmottara land,together with servitors,to the recipient in question. 85.Copper Plate Land Grant to Kaviratna Bhagavate Mahajan,Bajali Parganah,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1687(A.D.1765). 86.Copper Plate Land Grant to Kaviratna Chakravarti of Patidarang,Barnagar and Bajali Parganah,Kamrup. -Rajeswarasimha,Saka 1687(A.D.1765). 87.Stone Inscription of Bilvesvara Temple,Chamata,Nalbari. -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1694(1772) It records the renovation of the temple in question. 88.Copper Plate Land Grant of the Matha at Ksudra-Makhibaha,Nambarbhag Parganah,Kamrup. -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1692(1770). 89.Copper Plate Land Grant of Patbausi Sattra,Barpeta, -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1694(1772). 90.Copper Plate Land Grant of Sandheli Village Namghar,Panigaon Taluka,Nambarbhag Parganah,Nalbari. -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1695(1773). 91.Copper Plate Land Grant etc. to Biswanath Gosain Temple,Biswanath,Sonitpur, -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1696(1774). 92.Copper Plate Land Grant to Gaurivallabha temple,Rangpur,Sivasagar. -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1696(1774). 93.Copper Plate Land Grant to Gangavallabha Pahumaria Goswami,Umananda,Kamrup. -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1696(1774). 94.Copper Plate Land Grant to Bengena-ati-Sattra. -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1699(1777). 95.Copper Plate Land Grant to Anwar Faqir at Banbhag,Konwarbhag,etc.,Parganahs,Kamrup. -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1702(1780). It records the grant of land to Anwar Faqir, as also his disciples and shares in the income of the four Maqams(holy places)of Shah Madar in the Bausi parganah,Shah Faqir in the Barnagar Parganah,Panch Pirs 'Maqam in the Kshetri parganah and Bar Maqam of Hajo(Known popularly as powa or quarter-Mecca)'(Neog). 96.Copper Plate Land Grant to Madanachala Temple,Kamrup. -Lakshmisimha,Saka 1696(1774). 97.Copper Plate Land Grant to Pingalesvara Devalaya,Kamrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1703(A.D.1781). It renews the grant previously made by Sivasimha in Saka 1661. 98.Copper Plate Inscription Recording one Lakh Sacrifices to Goddess Kamakhya,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1704(A.D.1782). 99.Copper Plate Grant to Hayagriva-Madhava Temple, Hajo,Kamrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1705(A.D.1783). 100.Copper Plate Inscription Granting Boats, Boatsman,and Money to Hayagriva-Madhava Temple,Hajo,Kamrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1705(A.D.1783). 101.Copper Plate Land grant to Devi-ghar,Marangi,Golaghat. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1705(A.D.1783). 102.Copper Plate Land Grant to Dakhinpat Gosai of Majuli in the Darrangi kingdom. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1707(A.D.1785). 103.Copper Plate Land Grant of Paschimpar Parganah,Kamrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1708(A.D.1786). 104.Copper Plate Land Grant to the Medhi of Haridevi Pantha at Bajali,Nambarbhag Baruagar Parganah,etc. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1709(A.D.1787). 105.Copper Plate Land Grant of Hayagriva-Madhava Temple,Hajo,Kamrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1710(A.D.1788). 106.Copper Plate Land Grant of the Kalikamatha,Jayantiyapur,(now in Bangladesh). -Queen Kasasati Devi,consort of Badagosain or king Vijaynarayana. Altogether three plates were issued by queen Kassasati Devi Sakas 1710,1721 and 1725 respectively. 107.Copper Plate Land Grant of the Beltola Principality,Kamrup, -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1710(A.D.1788). 108.Copper Plate Land Grant to Auni-ati Sattra at Kacharimahal,Pubpar and Sarukhetri Parganah,Kamrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1711(A.D.1789). 109.Copper Plate Land Grant pertaining to the worship of Govinda at Guwahati,KAmrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1714(A.D.1792). 110.Copper Plate Land Grant of Pubtharia, -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1714(A.D.1792). 111.Copper Plate Inscription Regarding Appointment of Kataki at Guwahati,Kamrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1714(A.D.1792). 112.Copper Plate Land Grant to Bhuvanesvari Temple,Kamakhya,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 17...? The year of issue is partly missing. 113.The Balisatra Bell-metal Gong Inscription,Nagaon. -Gaurinathsimha,Saka 1717(A.D.1795). It was donated by Mahidhar Buragohain who, according to Neog, was probably no other than Purnananda Burahohain. 114.Rock Inscription of Chatrachal Temple,Guwahati,Kamrup, -Kamaleswarasimha,Saka 1721(A.D.1799). It records the construction of the Chatrachala Devi Temple. 115.Rock Inscription of Chatrachala Visnu and Siva temples,Guwahati,Kamrup. -Kamaleswarasimha,Saka 1721(A.D.1799). It records the construction of the two temples in question. 116.Copper Plate Inscription on the Settlement of Dipute over Bardowa Sattra,Nagaon. -Kamaleswarasimha,Saka 1721(A.D.1799). 117.Copper Plate Land Grant of Hayagriva-Madhava Temple,Hajo,Kamrup. -Kamaleswarasimha,Saka 1722(A.D.1800). 118.Copper Plate Inscription of Kalangpur Brahmachari Sattra,Nagaon. -Kamaleswarasimha,Saka 1722(A.D.1800). It is renewal of the grant of land and Paiks (servitors)originally given by Lakshmisimha. 119.Copper Plate Inscription reissued as Brahmottara Charter Lost During the Mayanmara Rebellion. -Kamaleswarasimha,Saka 1727(A.D.1805). 120.Copper Plate Inscription on Land Settlement in Bausi Parganah,Kamrup. -Chandrakantasimha,Saka 1738(A.D.1816). 121.Copper Plate Inscription on Provision of servitors to Pahumaria Sarujana Gosain. -Chandrakantasimha,Saka 1738(A.D.1816). 122.Copper Plate Land Grant to Auniati Sattra,Majuli,Jorhat. -Chandrakantasimha,Saka 1742(A.D.1820). 123.Copper Plate Inscription Pertaining to the Appointment of Outpost-keepers at Batakuchi,Kamrup. -Chandrakantasimha,Saka 1742(A.D.1820). 124.Copper Plate Land Grant in the Barbangsar Paraganah,Kamrup. -Chandrakantasimha,Saka 1743(A.D.1821). 125.Copper Plate Land Grant in the Pachimpar Parganah,Kamrup. -Chandrakantasimha,Saka 1743(A.D.1821) It revalidates the land grant previously made by Gaurinathsimha in Saka 1711. 126.Copper Plate Land Grant to Hayagriva-Madhava Temple,Hajo. -Chandrakantasimha,Saka 1743(A.D.1821) 127.Inscription on the Brass-door of Sundaridiya Sattra,Barpeta,Kamrup. -Bhaktacharan Atoi,Saka 1769(A.D.1847). 128.Document pertaining to the Grant of Dharmottara land to Aibheti Na-Sattra,Khana Taluk,Khana Parganah,Kamrup. Chandrakantasimha,Saka 1744(A.D. 1822). Written in handmade paper or ''pera Kakat''. Regarding this inscription, Neog remarks,''The utterly corrupt Sanskrit of the epigraph is most evidently a hopeless imitation of some such epigraphs. The phrase Sri-Duvara-kulabjatarunadityena is quite meaningless. It is evident,therefore,that the date of the epigraph cannot be 1583 Saka........... It may be 1683 Saka,in which case 1583 can be bonafide mistake. But Nityananda Gosai of the Chaityanya school of Vaisnavism who, along with Chintamani Gosai was given the dharmatra land gift by the Ranee chief, Dharmasimha,seems to have been a man of the late 16thcentury,in which case the whole document will fall under the shadow of doubt. Then again,the mention of different types of taxes and other liabilities,to which an ordinary subject of the Ahom state is liable,would show either that the Ranee principality had the same taxation and penal system as the Ahom state or that the whole document is to be considered doubtful.'' Reference:- 1)Kamarupa Sasanavali -Vidyavinode,P.N. 2) Kamarupa Sasanavali 1981 -Sarma,D. 3)Inscription of Ancient Assam 1978 -Sarma,M.M. 4)Prachya Sasanavali 1974 -Neog,M. 5)Kochbiharer Itihasa -Ahmed,Amanullah. 6)Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,Vol XIX. 7)Asom Sahitya Sabha Patrika,1923,No.8,Vol.3,38th year. 8)Journal of Assam Research Society,Vols XXVI,1981-82; XXIX,1986-89;XXX,No.1;XXXI,No.1-2,1989-90. 9)Journal of Ancient Indian History,Vols I,pt.1-2,1967-68;II,pt.1-2,1968-69;X,1976-77;XIII,pt.1-2,1980-82. 10)Journal of the Assam Sanskrit College,Vol.I,1986-87;Vol,II;1987-88. 11)Journal of the University of Guwahati,Arts,Vol.XVI,XVII. 12)Bulletin of the Assam State Museum-No.XI,1989. 13)East Indian Art Styles-Mukherjee,B.N.,1980. 14)Early History of Kamarupa,1988-Barua,K.L. 15)The History of the Civilization of the people of Assam to the 12th century A.D.,1987,-Choudhury,P.C. 16)The Comprehensive History of Assam,Vol,I,1990-Barpujari,H.K.(ed);
Coins:-Numismatic evidence is one of the most reliable source for determining the courses of history of particular country. It generally helps us in determining the Chronology and reigning period of the dynasty. But it is difficult to prove that single rulers of the ancient Assam (Pragjyotisa-Kamarupa) had ever minted coins,as yet no coins of the ancient period have ever come to light. But we cannot say that those kings had not minted a single coin. But there are good reasons to believe that these kings actually struck coins but for non-availability of a single coin uptil now makes us doubtful. It appears from the Articles of Dr. H.H. Wilson that atleast the western part of Assam, at an early period was predominately Hindu and the same may be inferred from the names of the main stream,the Lohit and the Brahmaputra,which are Sanskrit terms. At the beginning of the 13th century a new heard of people which accord-ing to Manuscripts-the chief of which came down from heaven by golden ladder, in memory of which event the Rajas of Assam uniformly takes the title-'Swargadeva', Lord of Paradise or Heaven appeared in the main land from the East and existed till the Burmese invasion of the nineteenth century which ended by signing the treaty in 1826 at Yandaboo between Britishers and Burmese. It may,therefore,be concluded that Assam was subjected to new from of Government, a new race of princes and new religion imported from Loas towards the close of 12th century and the beginning of 13th century,which can be identified by some coins as a base materials. The coins of Assam, so far collected goes back to the 16th century A.D. only but the Silimpur Inscription, it is stated that the king Jaypala, the last king of the Brahmapala dynasty of Assam who ruled Assam (Kamarupa) in the later part of the 12th century minted coins,but due to the non-availability of these coins we cannot prove it so far. The coins so far discovered and found are as follows:-
Ahom Coins :The ancient coins found as yet,is that of Shu-Klen-Mung (A.D.1539-1552) who issued in A.D.1543. Shu-Klen-Mung was counterpart of Koch king Nara Narayana (A.D.1515-1540) and he is known as Gargayaraja. But D. Wilson gives us some of the image of the coins of 13th century as below. 1 of Subinpha who ruled in the eighties of the thirteenth century. A.D.1281-93 1 of Sutupha one of the sons of Sutepha. A.D.1364-76 1 of Supatpha who also preferably a son of Sutepha. -Ditto- 1 of Suhumpha. In the beginning of 16th century Probably Suhumpha of Dr. Wilson is infant Suhungmung (A.D.1497-1539) one of the son of Supimpha (A.D.1493-97) who were also designated as Raja,i.e.,Pha. Sutumla A.D.(1648-63) the successors of Sutyinpha (Nariya Raja) (A.D.1644-48) was the first king to convert into Hinduism,who after assuming a Hindu name Jayadhvaja Singha introduced Sanskrit Script in his coins. But Ahom scripts were again reintroduced by king Supatpha (Gadadhar Singha) (A.D.1681-96) and his son Sukhrunpha (Rudra Singha) (A.D.1696-1714) followed his father's examples in the annual issue of his coins. This procedure continued till A.D.1821 the fall of the Ahom rule. The first coin struck in the name of the Ahom queen is that of Rani Phuleswari. She used Persian script and its shape was square. The coins issued by king Suklenmung (A.D.1539-52) was in Ahom script and language. The coins of earlier kings started the year of succession of the king who issued these coins,but the coins of Suklenmung did not contain any such statement. All the Ahom coins were octagonal in size till the introduction of square shaped coins by queen Phuleswari. But the later king Rajeswar Singha (A.D.1751-69) made experiment with different shapes besides issue of octagonal coins which was the general form of Ahom coins. Rajeswar Singha (A.D.1751-69)issued coins generally in Assamese script but he also made experiment with Ahom,Nagari and Persian script. The rupees and the gold coins of the Ahom kings were struck to the Indian standard of about 170 grains. It was probably king Rudra Singha (A.D.1696-1714)introduced half of quarter rupees. Rajeswar Singha (A.D.1751-69 )introduced eight and sixteenth of both the rupee and the Mohar (gold coins)while Gaurinath Singha (A.D.1780-95)added one more variety; i.e.,thirty-secondth. There was no copper currency-instead Cowri was issued in its place. During the reign of Gaurinath Singha (A.D.1780-95),the Moamaria rebellion took place. The rebel Moamarias after driving away the Ahomm from Rangpur declared independence and ran almost a parallel Governments with the Ahoms. During that time,in their domain,coins in the name of Bharat Singha and Sarbananda, two of the insurgent leaders were issued in the A.D.1791 to 1795. The Burmese also during their last invasion in 1826 are said to have struck very rough varieties of coins.
The Koch Coins: The Koch rupees (coins) are round in form and follows the model of the coins Hussain Shah of Bengal. The first Koch king to strike coins in his name was king Nara Narayana (A.D.1515-40). His coins are of silver. King Nara Narayana (A.D.1515-40) was a famous Koch king who extended his reign over the entire Assam including present Meghalaya and beyond upto Manipur, Tripura and Sylhet. The only known coins of the Eastern Koch kingdom are very few full rupee coins of king Raghudeva (A.D.1581-1603),king Prananarayana(A.D.1633-66)and single rupee of king Parikshit Narayana(A.D.1603-13). The half-rupee Koch coins minted during Mughal domination are known as Narayani rupees in Assam. Some of the Koch coins will be found in Guwahati and British Museum.
The Kachari Coins : The Kacharis are the earliest known inhabitants of the Brahmaputra Valley. The Assam coins cabinet possessed coins of Yasonarayana Dev and of Satrudaman alias Pratap Narayana Dev. One rupee of the former king bears a date of 1505 Saka (A.D.1583) showing that Yaso Narayana ascended the throne some twenty years before Satrudaman. The existence of a coin of Tamradhvaj whose date was (A.D.1706-1708)shows that this series of coins continued for at least 120 years. A coin of modern type was issued by the last Kachari king Gobinda Chandra(A.D.1813-30).
The Jayantia Coins :Very little is known of the history of the earlier rulers of Jayantia, except the occasional references in the Koch, Kachari and Ahom annals and their conflicts with the Koches, Kacharis and Ahoms. Coins are known bearing the saka dates 1591,1592,1630,1653,1696,1704,1707 and 1712 (A.D.1669,1670,1707,1731,1774,1782,1785 and 1790) and it can easily be assumed that as in the case of the earlier Ahom coins those dates represent the dates of accession or perhaps of the installation of the kings who issued the coins, None of the Jaintiya coins bear the name of the king who issued it probably due to prohibition of Koch king in this respect. But the quarter rupees dated 1653 and 1712 Saka era bear the name of Borgosain and Ramasingha respectively. The rupees are locally known as 'Katrataka' (Sword rupees) from the fact that they bear the device of two handed sword and a musket on them.
Monipuri Coins : A few Manipuri coins so far has been discovered which is locally known as 'Sel' or 'Shell' coins. There is no evidence of having been at any time a gold coinage in existence,but it is said that square silver coin existed from at least A.D.1712. A square coin of Churajit Singha dated 1734 Saka found to have weighed 173 grain-the Indian standard weight for a rupee. Square copper coins of large size and a greater weight are also known to have been use in Manipur. After British occupation indigenous coins ceased to exist from A.D.1891.
The Naga Coins:Whether the Naga kings had ever struck cons in their own names is not known,but we have evidence that there existed some peculiar arrow shaped 8''long copper coins known as Jabily Particularly used by the Ao Nagas to purchase valuables till the advent of the British. Some Jabilys have been preserved in Guwahati Museum.
Habitation Sites: Any spot on the earth that contains something that is the handiwork of human agency suggest human habitation either at the spot itself or in its vicinity. Innumerable such isolated spots are to be seen strewn across the length and breadth of the State,especially the Brahmaputra Valley,where in some spots,only a few chiselled stones lying together,or a small section of a rampart or a depression which once may have been a pond for all we know,are encountered. The mere enumeration of such spots is not likely to yield a clear and definite pattern of human settlement. Therefore,for the sake of convenience,by habitation sites are meant only those areas where there are sufficiently large concentrations of architectural ruins,sculptural remains,ancient tanks, ramparts, tumuli, networks of ancient roads, etc.,within defined areas which can ipso facto be termed as human settlements. A number of such areas can be seen throughout the State which can plausibly be said to have once contained fairly dense and well-organised human populations.
A brief description of some of these are given below:
Pratimanagar: Situated near Burha-Burhi-Nepaligaon, about 15 km from Chapakhowa in the Sadiya subdivision,Tinsukia, there exists an extensive fortified enclosure with three concentric earthen ramparts,the innermost one measuring 240 m x 185m. Inside the enclosure,on the western end,there are two mounds contain-ing bricks, probably of temples. The area is now under cultivation.
Barhapjan ruins,Tinsukia : Locally known as Rajgarh or Ahomgarh,within the Sukanguri T.E.and contiguous to the Barhapjan town,the earthen fortification is surrounded by a deep moat. Local tradition ascribes it to one Naga Raja. Inside the fortified area is a pond.
Rajakhana or Rajgarh area,Dhemaji : Situated about 7 km. northwest of Dhemaji. Rajakhana or Rajgarh is a rather lofty fortification measuring 150m x100m in area,and is now reduced into a swampy land by the Dihing river which changed its course in 1984 and started flowing through it,thereby washing way parts of the northern and the southern ramparts. Inside,in the centre, is a brick mound which was destroyed by the subsidence caused by the subsidence caused by the earthquake of 1950. Locally,it is associated with the name of Arimatta. About half a kilometre north of Rajakhana, there exist the ruins of a brick wall with five layers of bricks still extant,together with a piece of chiselled stone. Similarly, brick ruins,together with the foundation of a stone temple,are to be found about half a kilometre south of Rajakhana. The site contains stone structural components and,judging by their style, they seem to belong to 11th/12th century. West of Rajakhana also are to be found architectural ruins as well as mounds containing ruins.
Arimatta Garh, Dhemaji : Situated at a distance of about 19 km from Dhemaji and one kilometre from Choukhamgaon, this fortified area,although associated with the name of Arimatta,is a late-medieval site,measuring 315 metre square and surrounded by a moat,with one entrance. Inside is to be found an earthen mound,in all probability a tumulus (Moidam),which has been badly pilfered. There also exit a number of patches of elevated land which were probably foundations of thatched houses. IN all probability,it was a permanent army camp,meant to check the periodic incursion of the Daflas from the northern hilly tracts. Hence its alternative name is Dafalagarh.
Biswanath : Situated at the confluence of the Brahmaputra and the Burhidihing rivers,Biswanath,Sonitpur district,was reputed to be of great strategic importance during the late medieval period,where the Ahom rulers had a regular camp. The area contains a river islet known as Umatumoni, which once constituted a part of the mainland. Here once existed a brick temple of goddess Uma (now renovated). Hence is its name. The islet also contains a huge rock bearing as many as three inscriptions,twelve geometric designs of various types like grids and labyrinths,in-cised temple forms and animal motifs,all engraved on the rock face. On the mainland,evidences of low ramparts show that this part was once thickly populated. There once existed altogether five temples of late-medieval period,of which only two have survived more or less intact. Besides,existing architectural as well as sculptural evidences show that during the medieval period also there existed more than one temple,some of which may go back to 8th century A.D. The low-lying area in between Umatumani at the main land contain the remains of medieval stone temple which remain submerged during the monsoon.
Patapgarh : Patapgarh is situated about twelve kilometres west of Biswanath Chariali. Also known as Pratappur, it is a fortified rectangular area surrounded by an earthen rampart measuring 4km east-west X 2 km north-east,and a moat all around. The fort was reputedly built by Pratapsimha alias Ramachandra, a section of Dharmapala alias Jitari, and father of Arimatta, sometime in the 14th century. It has its entrance at the centre of eastern rampart, which is reinforced by two parallel ramparts on its north and three similar ramparts on the south. It was further surrounded by a number of additional ramparts and moats,their lengths ranging between 0.30 km and 8km. Of which remains of three ramparts still exist. West of it runs the late-medieval Salagarh,starting from Biswanath and ending at the foot of Dafla hills. Inside this vast fortified area is to be seen another fortress comprising about four acres of land with its ramparts measuring about 6 metres in height. The inner four sides of the ramparts bear traces of three offsets or terraces facilitating ascent to the top of the rampart. Inside this fortress there exists a circular pond. South of this inner fortress, there exists another large rectangular tank. The area is littered with bricks of the late-medieval period. In this area are to be seen remains of three ancient roads,one of them emanating through the entrance of the fort, another,starting from the north-east end, which is locally known as Raj-ali,and the third one running south to Biswanath. In addition, there are to be seen in this region more than a dozen tanks in between Pratapgarh and Biswanath, the largest of which is known as the Kunwari pukhuri.
Bihali Forest Reserve : In an area of about 9 (nine) sq. km. inside the deep jungle of Bihali Forest Reserve, Sonitpur district, remains of altogether 4 (four) stone temples and altogether 7 tanks, one of them lined with stones, can be seen, which probably belong to the early part of the late-medieval period. These are enclosed by an earthen rampart. The area also contains ruins of two brick temples. These apart, south of the Forest reserve down to the Brahmaputra river, more than a dozen tanks, both large and small,exist, which are probably contemporaneous with the above ruins. At any rate, all these ruins existing together are indicative of a flourishing settlement there once upon a time. In this area are also to be seen three ancient roads probably contemporaneous with the above ruins.
Sotea Jamuguri region : Inside the Ghiladhari T.E., adjacent to Sotea there are three large tanks, one of these lined with stones, which are reputed to have been excavated by some local Bhuyan Chiefs. South of the Sotea there are two late-medieval medium-sized tanks. Similarly, in the Khanaguri Gaon near Sotea area are two such tanks. Sotea itself has a tank together with the ruins of a medieval temple. This region also contains two roads of the late-medieval period measuring in length approximately 6.50 km. And 5 km. Respectively. At places in this region there exists a few other such roads some of which are still in use. Similarly, Jamuguri region also contains altogether 16 tanks of the late-medieval period.
Singri region, Sonitpur : Situated at a distance of 11 km south of Dhekiajuli, there exist inside the Singri T.E. Extensive ruins of two temples, locally known as Visvakarma Mandira and belonging to c. 10th century. A kilometre east of this place are to be seen a number of small brick and stone mounds in a row at a place called Dhirai-Majuli,from which a number of stone architectural components belonging to c.10th century have been recovered. A.kilometre west of Visvakarma Mandir are to be seen the ruins of a c.12th century temple at a village called Bangaligaon. Three km south of Bangali-gaon, there exits the Singri temple with different phases of repair. Close by,on top of a hill are the ruins of a medieval stone temple. Lastly,about 3 km east of the Singri T.E.scattered ruins of a stone temple of c. 11/12 century along the Brahmaputra exist. This region thus bears firm evidence of human habitation from the 10th century onwards. It is very probable that this region had a flourishing population even earlier,constitute as it did a part of the kingdom of the Salastambha dynasty with their capital at Hadappesvara in the Tezpur region which is situated about 50 km west from Singri as the crow-files.
Tezpur region : The modern town of Tezpur and its peripheral region,where the ancient capital of Hadappesvara of the Salastambha dyansty (c.A.D.655 to c.A.D.900) was located, contain a large number of ancient brick and stone ruins,both of the medieval and the late-medieval periods. On the south-eastern outskirts of the town,on top of a hillock known as Bamuni Pahar, there once existed a temple complex of c.11th century,consisting of altogether seven structures including those of a torana (gateway). On west of this hillock,along the Brahmaputra river,diggings for purposes other than archaeological have yielded from time to time large numbers of various types of temple components,variously ascribable to the period ranging from 7th to 11th century. In fact,the entire township is littered with stone architectural components. It also contains the remnant of a huge dried-up tank known as Harjara-Pukhuri, a name suggestive of Harjaravarman of the Salastambha dynasty. In the heart of the town are the ruins of the c.9th century Mahabhairava temple,lying scattered around the modern temple which has been built on the foundation of the old one. On the southern outskirts of the town,not very far from Bamuni hill ruins are to be seen the remains of a medieval Sakti temple,where the modern Bhairavi temple stands. In the village of Da-Parbatiya, existing on the western outskirts of the town,there is a large concentration of architecture and sculptural remains. Noteworthy among these are the door-frame of a temple of the Gupta period of late 16thcentury. Other remains of this area are,the brick foundation of an old temple over which the modern Henguleswar temple stands;the stone pillars and lintels used in the Silar Namghar (amodern Vaisnavite prayer-hall);the brick ruins and the stone pillar of c.7th century at Baralimara Satra (now shifted to the Cole Park at Tezpur);the Garh-dol,containing the ruins of two brick structures enclosed by a low rampart with brick reinforcement;a cluster of seven tanks existing not far from the Garh-dol and traditionally assigned to Harjaravarman;the structural ruins at Brahmachari Satra,Da-Chuburi;the inscription of Harjavarman engraved on a sheer rock-face at the Dhenukhana-Parvat on the bank of the Brahmaputra;the brick remains on the Dhenukhana parvat along the Brahmaputra near Da-parbatiya;the more than 4 m tall mukhalingam known as Tingyesvara at Ketekibari on the outskirts of Tezpur; the 8th century temple ruins at Majgaon near Ketekibari,etc. All these ruins are indicative of human habitation in this region from 6thcentury onwards.
Kalaigaon region : The Kalaigaon region,west of Tangla,contains a number of ancient ruins and tanks,scattered all over the region,suggesting human habitation. At Baruah Hawligaon is an old large tank on the bank of which there once stood a brick temple with stone components belonging to the medieval period, locally known as Bhoga Baruaar Mandir. The nearby village of Barnagari has an ancient tank,together with the ruins of a stone temple belonging to c.11th century. The Muradeor temple,built in the 16thcentury during the reign of Naranarayana,exists at Kabirali,a village near Barua Hawli. Kabirali also contains stone architectural remains of 11th/12th century.
Darangipara region : Similarly, at the Darangipara region,about 9km south of Odalguri, extensive signs of human habitation can be seen, such as, at Nalkhamara with stone temple components, and a brick temple which has been washed away by the turbulent Chandana river. About 5km south of Odalguri are to be seen a large tank and the sanctum of a ruined brick temple,as also some stone ruins on another bank of the same tank. The Jarpukhuri ruins of 12th century situated about 15 km north of Tangla,exists in the reserved area of Majgaon T.E. There also exist at a little distance two medium sized tanks, as also broken bricks spread over a wide area around these ruins,pointing to human settlements from the medieval period down.
Rajgarh : Rajgarh is situated a few kilometres north of Harisingha. It is a fortified area extending over about 50 acres of land. It has four entrance with stone pillars about 4 m.high. Other sites:Not very far from Sipajhar,there exists the Jaypala tank,supposedly excavated by a Bhuyan chief named Jaypal,and as such belonging to c.14th/15th century. Around this region are numerous other tanks,such as the Deoraj pukhuri at Byaspara village, west of which,as per tradition,was the city of local chief named Lokarai. On its bank there once stood a stone temple which no longer exists. The other tanks of this region are Baldeo pukhuri,Baghmara pukhuri with the remains of brick steps leading down to the bottom,Barhampur pukhuri,Pachakia pukhuri, Lakshmi pukhuri, Dighi pukhuri, Gorukamora pukhuri,etc. Bhurar Garh exists near Charandhara in Kalaigaon Mouza and it is a fortified area of about 130 acres. Inside the fortified area are to be seen a number of raised grounds suggesting their use for residential purposes,as also two small tanks. The entrance to the fortification was protected on either side by ramparts. The term Bhura may originally have stood for Bhuyan,which was in due course distorted into Bhura. This probability can not be discounted since this region was once ruled by a number of Bhuyan chiefs during the 14th/15th century. As such,it might have been constructed sometime in the 15th century, if not earlier.
Guwahati region : Guwahati has been traditionally known as Pragjyotishpur, capital of ancient kingdom of Pragjyotisha. The greater Guwahati region,including North Guwahati, contains archaeological ruins ranging in date from the 5th century A.D. Down to the 18th century. The southern part of this area, i.e.,the present day city of Guwahati,was bounded on the north by the Brahmaputra,on the south by the hilly ranges of the Khasi Hills district,on the east and the west by two ramparts respectively. Within this area are to be found a number of brick built temples of the late-medieval period,almost all of which were constructed on the foundation of the earlier stone teples of the medieval period. Notable among these are the temple complex are Kamakhya containing about a dozen temples of the late medieval period where building activities started from the 6th century,the Sukra-Janardana temples,the Chatrakara temple,the Basistha temple,the Umananda temple,the Navagraha temple,the Ugratara temple ,etc. The area also contains a number of tanks excavated in different periods. Quite a few stray sculptors engraved on rock-faces at different parts of this area,as also architectural ruins of stone as well as brick,are also encountered. Apart from the two ramparts,constituting the eastern and the western boundaries,a few other ramparts,built during the medieval period,are to be seen,notable among these being the one running east-west along the spine of the Narakasur pahar and,south of it,another brick-reinforced rampart running north-south and ending up at the foot of the Khasi Hill range. The earliest inscription found in this region,viz,the Umachal Rock inscription,which is located at the foot of the Kamakhya hill,belongs to the 5th century A.D. At the foot of the Kamakhya hill, there is also a single-line Persian inscription,as also an 18th century inscription in Assamese,known as the Duar-Garila inscription,marking the western gateway to the headquarters at Guwahati during the Ahom occupation. Occasional diggings done for purpose of construction of buildings,etc.,as also regular excavations,especially at the central sector of the northern part of the present city,have yielded stone architectural components, remains of brick structures, potteries,etc.
Similarly,the North Guwahati region has number of 18th century brick temples,all of which were constructed on the foundation of medieval stone temples,namely,the Asvakranta temple,the Kurma-Janardana temple,the Maniikarneswar temple and the Dirgheswari temple. Besides these,the area also contains a number of earthen ramparts,a stone bridge of the late-medieval period,tanks,three stone inscriptions,the earliest of them belonging to A.D.1206,and a host of stray stone sculptural pieces belonging to the medieval period.
Hajo region : Hajo in the Kamrup district was once a strategic region and the strong-hold of the Mughals who were in occupation of the region west of Barnadi after the defeat of Nilambar by Hussain Shah in A.D.1498. Hajo proper has altogether six temples built a different times,most of them on the stone foundation of medieval temples. The earliest structural activities,especially of the Hayagriva-Madhava Temple,which is the principal temple of the locality,goes back to 8th century. Centering on this temple an extensive habitation area grew up in course of time. This shrine is equally venerated by the Lamaist Budhists as the alleged place of Mahaparinirvana of Sakyamuni or the Budha. The area also contains two large tanks. Close by,on a hill-top exists the 16thcentury dargah of Ghiyasuddin Auliya,and the place is venerated by the Muslim community of Assam as Poa Mecca. In A.D.1657,a mosque was built here,which does not exist now.
Baidyar-garh is situated at Betna at a distance of 25 km. north of Rangiya town, and is a fortified area of several acres of land. As the area has been badly vandalized by modern habitation,no details of ancient remains are available. Baidyargarh is traditionally associated with Arimatta. However, going by its name, it is more probable that it was constructed during the reign of Vaidyadeva sometime in the 12th century,which was subsequently used as capital by Arimatta.
Baihata Chariali area : This area is replete with archaeological ruins,such as,architectural remains,old ramparts,tanks,etc.
The architectural ruins at Madan Kamdev, situated at a distance of 5km south-east of Baihata Chariali and 40km north of Guwahati,exist on the top of the hillock of the same name. Remains of altogether with evidences of brick works existing side by side,all of which belong to a period ranging from the late 11th to 12th centuries,are seen here. On the south of it,right in the midst of swampy area is the Jalpeswar hillock which also contains contemporary stone structural evidences. About half a km.north of Madan-Kamdev,are to be seen stone structural remains on the Narasimha pahar . About 6 km north of Madan-Kamdev as the crow flies are to be seen the 12th century stone temple ruins at Pingalesvar together with a tank and scanty remains of a brick-built in mosque of late-medieval period nearby. Thus,this region bears evidences of altogether 25 stone structures,all of them temples. About 3km.north of Madan-Kamdev,in village of Januru,is a large ancient tank,and another about one km.west of it. Besides,on the south of Madan-Kamdev,across the seasonal Madan-Kuri river flowing nearby and along the spine of the Bhitarsala hill range,is a road-cum-rampart with brick reinforcement running northeast-southwest and curving down south along the Changsari-Kahara pahar and ending up at Lakhipahar. Along this north south stretch,this road-cum-rampart is interspersed with number of earthen bastions. It was from Lakhipahar that this road again probably swerved nothwest, this time simply as road,and passed through the old stone bridge which was destroyed by the earthquake of 1897,and ended up at Sessa in the neighbourhood of Hajo or,more probably,continued further to Hajo. That this region had flourishing human population at least from the medieval period,if not earlier,with the Madan-Kamdev complesx as it nerve-centre,can easily be de-duced from the extant of the ruins and other remains in this region.
Sualkuchi area: Sualkuchi is about 25km west of Guwahati where a medieval stone temple belonging to c.12th century exists on top of a hillock,which was party renovated during the late-medieval period. A long earthen late-medieval rampart,starting from one hill and running one kilometre and ending at the foot of another hill exists on the west Sualkuchi. Subsequently,a good number of late-medieval Vaisnavite monasteries grew up here. Sualkuchi thus bears evidence of human habitation from at least 12th century. About three kilometre north of this place,there exists a natural cave which enshrines a number of Hindu metallic icons. The antiquity of this cave as a place of veneration is not known.
Suryapahar region : The Mornoi-Suryapahar region,Goalpara district,is situated about 20 km.east of Goalpara town comprising an area of roughly 30km. At Suryapahar proper,on the foothills,are to be seen quite a few sculptures ranging in date from 8th to 9th century,all depicted on the body of three large rock formations,Sivalingas cut out on boulders,small rock-cut cubicks with Sivalingas inside,a number of solid Buddhist stupas,some freestanding and the others,curved out on the body of large boulders,images of jaina Tirthankaras of 8th/9th century,a tank with brick linings,the ruins of brick temple containing terracottas of 7th/8th century,etc. In between Suryapahar and the nearby Mornoi village,there exists a huge tank,now dried up. At the Mornoi village itself,architectural and sculptural as well as terracotta plaques of the medieval period have been recovered from time to time. At a little distance on the south of Suryapahar,three exists the ruins of a brick temple of the medieval period atop a hillock known as Bamun pahar. The existing chiselled and decorated stones now used as stairways to the top of the hillock suggest the existence of a temple there of an earlier period. About 5 km west of Suryapahar is the Dekdhowa-pahar right on the bank of the Brahmaputra where quite a large number of Sivalingas cut in the fashion of those existing at Suryapahar,together with a two-line short inscription of c.9th century,can be seen,as also panels bearing the images of Ganesha,Brahma,Sadasiva,and another unidentified image. There also exist a brick-built dargah of the late-medieval period as well as two small mounds littered with old brick-bats,prob-ably of temples,plus another single line stone inscription in old Assamese script on a boulder on the east of these mounds. Similar Sivalingas in a large number are also to be seen at Mahadebpahar near Suryapahar and opposite the Sainik School. About 5 km south of Suryapahar,at Matia,there exist on top of a hillock the ruins of a brick-built temple with decorative terracotta pieces,and a few chiselled stone blocks,which indicate the existence of stone temples there from the medieval period onwards. Suryapahar also finds mention in late-medieval chronicles. This area thus bears evidences of human habitation from atleast the 7th century onwards. This is one place in Assam where three religious beliefs,viz,Buddhism,Hinduisim and Jainism,coexisted and flourished without apparently any conflict. Now where else in Assam have remains of the Jaina religion been found so far.
Pancharatna region : The Pancharatna region,situated about 8 km of the Goalpara town,comprises among others,a number of small bare caves,some with traces of steps in front,belonging to the medieval period,a solid stupa measuring 1.13 m.,huge yoni-peetha plus a number of temple components. About 5 km east of this place,on the scrap of a hill,is the bare existence of the foundation of a brick temple with a few blocks of chiselled stones. Right across the river Brahmaputra,at Jogighopa also,there are to be seen a number of small caves. One of them with steps cut in front,the inside back-wall bearing Buddhist stupa motif in very low relief in some of them.
These are indicative of the fact that this region was once agog with tantrik-Buddhist religious activities,perhaps from 8th century onwards.
Panbari region : About 17 km. West of Dhubri,there exists at Panbari an area of approximately nine acres containing brick structural ruins with stone solings, adjacent to the Ship & Goat Farm of the Vetenary department. It was in all probability set up in the beginning of the 16th century,as administrative headquarters,after this region was wrested by Saiyyad Hussain Shah of Bengal from the contemporary ruler of Kamata in A.D.1498. Across the road and facing the site is a triple-domed mosque which in all probability was built at the same time as the structures of the headquarter. About three km. West of this,behind the B.S.F.camp is an Idgah with a brick enclosure and a brick well nearby.
Parikshit Rajar Garh is situated at Rupsi, 20 km east of Dhubri, and is covered by deep jungle. As the name suggests,it was set up by Parikshit Narayan of the Eastern Koch dynasty in the 17th century. The area is enclosed by an earthen rampart with an entrance to it. Inside are to be found scattered ruins of brick structures and stray decorated terracotta pieces.
Innumerable ruins of brick temple,brick-reinforced earthen ramparts,tanks,megaliths,sculptures bearing inscription,other stone inscriptions,etc.,have been noticed in the region between the Dhansiri and the Dayyang river,located mostly in the Golaghat district,bearing eloquent testimony of human habitation right from the early centuries of the christian era to the late-medieval period.
Sarupathar region : The Nagajari-Khanikar Gaon existing near Sarupathar,has yielded fragmentary stone inscription of 5th century. From the same place has been recovered a number of pebbles,each bearing a letter of the Eastern Brahmi script ascribable to the 2nd/3rd century A.D. Besides these,there also exist a brick mound at Ahomgaon and a number of ancient tanks at Rajapukhuri, both adjacent to Sarupathat. Deopani a small village 4km from Sarupathar, originally had a brick temple which no longer exists. The site,however,contains about 20 stone sculptures belonging to 7th/8th century. Similarly, Sisupani near Deopani contains two ancient tanks,on the banks of which the ruins of two ancient brick temples exit.
Barpathar region : Duboroni village,existing at the outskirts of Barpathar,has yielded number of sculptures of c.8th century,together with some Sivalinagas,which are probably contemporaneous with the sculptures. This village also contains a six-metre high brick reinforced rampart running north east,as also the ruins of a brick temple and a tank measuring 72 m X 69 m. Alichiga Gaon, about 3 km north of Duboroni. contains scattered old bricks of a brick temple and a stone Surya-image of 8th century.
Kasomari region : In the Kasomari pathar region,Telisal, about 20 km from Barpathar,contains a large tank measuring 480 m X 240 m,the ruins of an old temple,as also fragments of old sculptures. Nearby exists another large tank locally known as Lashminagar. About 4 km away from here,another large tank named Yajnapukhuri and a stone image of the medieval period are to be seen. Several similar other mounds littered with brick-bats exist at a number of spots in that area. At Rajabari, about 8 km east of Telisal in the Kasomari Reserve Forest there are a number of beautifully chiselled flat megalithic orthostats bearing floral and other designs belonging probably to the early part of the late-medieval period and raised under the patronage of the Kachari kings whose kingdom embraced this part. There apart,a number of stone sculptures of the medieval period,all badly weathered,are to be seen lying scattered in this region. Judging by the existing ruins,it can be said that during that period the area was fairly inhabited.
Numaligarh region : About 13 km east of Bokakhat,the Numaligarh region,which finds frequent mention in the history of 15th/16thcentury,and which constituted a part of the Kachari kingdom prior to its occupation by the Ahoms,contains a long brick-reinforced rampart of the medieval period,running along the National High-way No.37,and partly damaged by it as also by encroachers, besides a number of earthen ramparts running upto the foothills of Karbi-Anglong Hills. At a distance of 3 km from Numaligarh,there exists on a hillock the ruins of 12th century temple, known as Deoparvat ruins,as also evidences of brick and stone ruins in the vicinity. Near it,inside the Numaligarh T.E.,there exists the foundation of a huge temple,as also the quarry-sites for the stones used for the purpose of building this stone temple, Charaideo,Sibsagar district,is a place where Sukapha,the first ruling monarch of the Ahom dynasty set up his capital which continued as such down to the reign of Jyaokhamti. Charaideo was divided into three areas,viz.,the burial area,the place of worship respectively. The burial area contains innumerable tumuli (Moidams)where the king and the members of the royal household were buried. The place of worship contains the Deosal with eight columns and the Langkuri Dol,theirantiquity going back to the pre-Ahom period,as these were already in existence when Sukapha appropriated them from the Barahis then ruling in the region. Besides,Charaideo contains a number of tanks,such as Sa-dhowa pukhuri,Tenga pukhuri,Petudhowa pukhuri,Lengibar pukhuri,Bargohain pukhuri,etc.
Chargua the second capital of the Ahoms was set up by Sudanpha which at present contains two large Moidams as well as traces of household compounds. Be-sides,there are three more Moidams,all of which have been levelled to flat terraces. It remained as the capital of the Ahom kingdom down to the reign of Supimpha.
10 km east of Sivasagar town exists Bakata where the capital of Suhungmung once existed. Six Moidams in north-south axis in a paddy field are to be seen here,measuring on an average 30 to 40 m dia x 4 to 7 m high. An embankment along the Dihing river flowing nearby exists here.
Maduri,about 4 km south of Bogidol area on the Jaisagar-Nazira Road,has altogether 10 Moidams. The biggest one of them,app. 60 m dia x 12 m high,is known as Laithepena's Moidam. The two other Moidams measure 47 m.dia x 12 m high and 42 m dia x 7 m high respectively.
Garhgaon exists at a distance of 10 km east of Sivasagar town. First established by Suklenmung alias Garhgayan Raja in A.D. 1540,the capital area is en-closed by three concentric ramparts,viz.,Bajgarh,Bhitargarh and Pakhigarh. The first two were constructed by Pratapsimha and Suklenmung respectively ,and the Pakhigarh together with the three principal masonry gateways at Bajgarh by Pratapsimha,the latter three known as Barduar,Paniduar and Chunparaduar,none of which exist at present. The masonry-built seven storeyed royal palace was built there during the reign of Rajesvarsimha in A.D.1752,of which the lower three storeys are said to be underground. The area contained,besides the palace,two more structures,viz,the Golaghar (magazine house)and a store-house (now in total ruins).and two tanks,besides several residential compounds (Dhaps).
Nearby are the fortified township of Bakata capital of king Suhungmung,as mentioned above,and Darikanagar,founded by Sudaipha in the latter half of the 17th century.
Around this extensive area are to be seen a number of defensive ramparts built at different times,and a number of roads which are still in use today.
Rangpur,situated 5km south of Sivasagar town,was originally founded by king Rudrasimha in A.D.1699. The greater Rangpur area,for our purposes,comprises Sivasagar town,Jaysagar ,Gaurisagar and other peripheral regions. Within this extensive area a number of old temples,tanks,ramparts,stone bridges,etc.,are to be seen,all belonging to the later part of the late-medieval period. Especially noteworthy is the royal palace,known as the Talatal-ghar,which was started by Rudrasimha and completed by Rajeswarsimha. Although the palace is reputed to be seven storeyed, only three storeys are at present to be seen overground,consisting of altogether thirty-six chambers,inclusive of a small chapel. The palace is enclosed by three ramparts,viz.,Bajgarh (outer rampart),3.20 km in circumference and encompassed by a moat,Bhitargarh (inner rampart)1.;30 km in circumference,and the innermost rampart known as the Tolagarh. Inside the fortified areas are two tanks,a magazine house and the foundation ruins of other structures.
West of the palace,just across the road,is the two-storeyed pavilion known as Rang-ghar,built by Prattasimha (A.D.1704)and meant for enjoying sports by the royalty. In front of it was a smaller pavilion built by Rajeswarsimha which no longer exists.
A little south of the palace are the Ranganath temple,Haragauri temple,Gaurivallabh temple and the Fakua Dol,the last one reputedly the burial place of Jaymati Kunwari,mother of Rudrasimha. These were built by Rudrasimha and the subsequent rulers.
About a km from the palace complex is the Jaysagar tank,excavated by Rudrasimha in memory of his mother. On its banks stand the Visnudol, the Sivadol,and a little to the north-west,the Ghanshyamarghar,all built during Rudrasimha's reign.
About 3km south of Jaysagar,there exists a tank,known as the Kalugayan pukhuri, with two brick-built temples,viz,Jayaddatridol,Vishnudol, of the time of Sivasimha. \
On the west of Jaysagar,there exist a tank and a temple,known respectively as Rudrasgar or Na-pukhuridol,all belonging to the reign of Lakshmisimha. North of this,across the road,is the Puranipukhuri or Athaisagar excavated during the reign of Jayadhvajsimha. About 10 km west of Rudrasagar there exists the tank known as Gauridagar,together with three temples,belonging to the reign of Sivasimha.
North of Rangpur,at the heart of the Sivasagar town,is the Sivasagar tank,together with its three temples,viz.,Sivadol, Visnudol and Devidol, belonging to the reign of Sivasimha.
Besides these,there are a number of old tanks around Rangpur,notamle among them being the Bogi-Rajmao pukhuri,the Mechagharar pukhuri and the Rajmao pukhuri,belonging respectively to the reigns of Lakshmisimha,Pratapsimha and Sivasimha. Each of these tanks once had a temple on its banks,which no longer exists. These apart,the entire region has a network of old roads criss-crossing and radiating from which are still in use.
Dabaka region : Situated about 34km. Southeast of the Nagaon town,Dabaka or ancient Dabaka,once constituted an independent kingdom which finds mention in the Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta,thus bearing indubitable testimony to a kingdom flourishing in the 4th century A.D.,and probably from an earlier period,although the present surface archaeological take one only as far back as the 6thcentury. Judging by the existing ruins in an around Dabaka, it can perhaps be safely said that the Dabaka kingdom once comprised the south-west region of the present Nagaon district including the greater Jogijan,Amtala and Lanka regions,and also a part of the eastern section of the Karbi-Anglong district,i.e.,Hamren subdivision,to find mention in Samudragupta's inscription. Be that as it may,the archaeo-logical ruins existing here belonging to period ranging from 6thto the 12th century A.D.and later. Most of these ruins are to be found along the Kapili and the Jamuna valleys.
At Dabaka itself,at a distance of one km south of the Dabaka bazar,in a village known as Mikirati,there exist two rows of small stone temples,all symmetrically placed. which were constructed sometime around 10th century A.D. In the same area,further south,is the garbha-griha (sanctum-sanctorum)of a brick temple over-grown with a pipal tree. Besides,archaeological components and figure sculptures datable to c. 7th century have also been found,and further exploration/excavation of the area is likely to yield archaeological evidences of earlier period.
About 19 km southeast of Dabaka,there exist,at Devasthan, stone temple ruins,symmetrically placed in the manner of the Dabaka ruins,containing structural ruins of altogether eight stone temples,datable to 8th century. About two km. North-west of Dabaka are the Gachtal ruins,containing evidences of three structures,a stone well built in two phases,and two huge tanks which have now completely dried up. The ruins belong to the medieval period.
Kampur region : Kampur is located 23 km south of Nagaon town. Close to the township,at a village named Kawoimari,ruins of more than two stone temples belonging to c. 12th century are to be seen. A good number of scattered architectural ruins are also to be found within a radius of about 6 km. all belonging to the period ranging from 10th to 12th century.
Jogijan region : The greater Jogijan region is situated about 6 km northwest of Hojai.Jogijan proper contains the ruins of a temple complex,locally known as Rajbari .Evidences show altogether six stone structures,built during the late 11th/12th century. The entire area was enclosed by a brick rampart,traces of which are still to be seen. About 1/2 km west of this spot are to be found ruins of three fairly large temples,locally known as Sankhadevi,which are contemporaneous with the Rajbari ruins. About a kilometre southwest from Jogijan across the Jogi river ,at a place called Na-Nath,there are altogether 8 brick temples arranged in a manner similar to those of Mikirati and Vasudev Than,and belonging to the mid 7th/early 8th century.
Amtala : About 9km. South of Hojai,a large tank and some smaller ones,all silted up,together with elevated areas bearing potsherds,broken bricks,ruins of stone temples and scattered architectural pieces,spread over an area of about 6 acres,are to be seen in a village called Amtala. The ruins belong to the medieval period ranging in date from 10th to 12th century.
On either side of the road leading from Hojai to Lanka,there exist a good number of large tanks,excavated sometime in the beginning of the late-medieval period. Although no other archaeological remains have hitherto been found in this region,the very existence of these tanks,as also the recovery of a large quantity of cowries from this region,are indicative of flourishing human habitation during that period.
Jangal Balahu garh : The Jongal Balahu Garh is located about 5 km west of Raha,Nagaon. It is fortified area of about 800 m X 200 m,with three concentric earthen ramparts interspersed with ditches,of which only the southern side exists at present. This is traditionally assigned to one Jongal Balahu,the alleged son of Arimatta who ruled in the later part of 14th century.
Hamren Sub-division,Karbi Anglong : The Parakhowa -Urdhavaganga area in the Hamren subdivision of Karbi Anglong district contains a network of earthen ramparts. In this region,there are to be seen several tanks as also brick and stone ruins,some of which exist on the shallow bed of the Urdhavaganga rivulet.
Several km. Around Dokmoka,Hamren,a number of temple ruins of brick and stone are to be found at places,such as Burhagosain Than,Charlock-pathar, Mahamaya-pahar, Badganga,etc.,ranging in the date from 6th to the late medieval period. A rock cave at Mahamaya Pahar is assignable to the 6th century and other ruins of this hill are assignable to the 12th century and later. The rock inscription existing at Badganga belongs to Bhutivarman of the Varman dynasty,and is assignable to the mid 6th century.
The Tilapara-Bagadol area at Langhin, Hamren, contains a medieval rock-out Durga image,a similar Ganesha image and brick ruins. Similarly,the Phulani region,approximately 8 sq. km. In area,contains a number of tanks,both large and small ruins of stone temples, brick ruins and earthen fortifications covering a fairly large area. The evidence of an old road connecting Dokmoka and Bakalia is also to be seen here. The Langlokso region,a fertile valley of about 12 sq. km. In the upper reaches of Karbi-Anglong has the ruins of stone temple at Sikrai-Rongpi Gaon. The region must have been well-populated in the olden days,judging by the fertility of the valley,although no other archaeological ruins have hitherto been found to reinforce this view. Donkamokham and its surrounding areas contain a fairly good number of megalithic uprights in clusters,most of which are of early date,judging by their state of existence.
It is to be borne in mind that although the southern parts of the Nagaon district and the Hamren subdivision have been divided into a number of habitational areas for the convenience of description,no such watertight compartmentalization is possible in practice,since these areas are contiguous and so are the archaeological remains existing there,with only minor gaps here and there due to ravages caused by the frequently changing course of the rivers,especially the Kapili, as also due to the existence of hills and cultivated lands. Large-scale modern habitations are also responsible for the loss of many archaeological sites and ruins. Even then,many stray ruins and silted up tanks are to be seen here and there gaps,some of them on lofty hill-tops suggesting habitation below in ancient days.
Maibang in the North Cachar district was the second capital of the Kachari kingdom which was set up in the east bank of the Mahur river sometime around A.D.1676 after the sacking of their first capital at Dimapur by The Ahoms. It is a fortified area measuring approximately 900 m X 400 m,with a part of it washed away by the Mahur river. The area was divided into a number of sectors by brickwalls of approximately one-metre thickness criss-crossing it which probably contained different establishments,such as the palace complex,the royal court,the area for the courtiers,etc. At the northeast end there is an area containing a number of low receding terraces like that of a stadium. The township contains two small tanks,one of them brick-lined,as also a brick well. There was also a temple built of brick and stone,as evidenced by chiselled by stone blocks engraved with geometrical patterns and bearing dowel marks,as also a number of decorated terracotta plaques. There are also the remains of a number of sentry towers built of bricks and boulders along the riverside. The capital was entered from the east where there was a gateway through which a path ran east-west. At the western end was the main entrance known as the Simhadvara,constructed by king Meghanarayana in A.D.1576,as evidenced by two inscriptions bearing more or less the same legend,and a tall brick mound. Standing across the river is the monolithic Chandi Mandir carved in A.D.1761.
Contemporary chronicles (Buranjis) also mention the existence of a number of fortified areas, some of them brick-built, which the conquering Ahoms captured during their conflicts with the Kacharis. No archaeological evidence of such fortresses, however, have hitherto been found.
Khaspur is situated at a distance of about 12 km. North of Silchar town, Cachar. Formerly also known as Brahmaputra, it was the last capital of the Kacharis and was set up during the eighties of the 18th century when their former capital at Maibang was sacked by the Ahoms, as a result of which they had to abandon it. The capital area contains altogether six brick structures,which are 1) Snana Mandir, with a lotuspetalled dome overhead and four opening on four sides,2) Bengal hut-type structure with a gabled roof, known as Ranachandi Mandir, 3) a double storeyed structure known as Baraduari,4)another Bengal hut-type structure known as Siva Mandir,5)the Simhadvara with a Bengal hut-type roof and 6)yet another structure with roof similar to no.2 above, known as Lakshmi Mandir. Siva Mandir and Baraduari are enclosed within a brick wall.